Table of Contents
- Historical Perspectives on HIV/AIDS for Global Health Learning In Nursing
- Importance of Documented and Published Healthcare Disparities/Inequalities
- The Formalized Regulatory Guidelines
- Moral, Legal or Ethical Issues in Global Healthcare for HIV/AIDS
- Burden of Chronic Care Related to HIV/AIDS
- Healthcare Productivity and Economic Costs
- Related Health and Healthcare essays
Such a serious virus as HIV not only attacks human immune system, but destroys it completely. As a result, it cannot perform its main functions to full extent. This serious condition triggers the development of other infections and reduces the body’s protection against pathogens. In time, if treatment is not provided, HIV-infected people become susceptible to microorganisms. No one is immune from HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, but many individuals do not regard their health seriously. The nature of STDs and HIV is asymptomatic. The condition not only destroys human body from the inside, but becomes chronic over time. When the disease reaches its chronic stage, physicians find it difficult to treat it. In most cases, women and men of various ages contract the infection as a result of risky sexual activity, blood transfusions, breastfeeding from HIV-infected mother to the child, and sharing injecting equipment. The chronic illness affects the entire body; symptoms are extensive, so only an experienced physician can provide a correct diagnosis and prevent complications. The immune system becomes ineffective because it fails to fight against illnesses and infections. In order to alleviate the burden of HIV/AIDS, it is important to examine various historical perspectives on this chronic condition, healthcare disparities and inequalities, approved guidelines, ethical and legal issues, chronic care, economic costs, and healthcare productivity in the context of HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Historical Perspectives on HIV/AIDS for Global Health Learning In Nursing
In the 1600-1700s, females often contracted sexually transmitted infections. Such phenomenon as HIV/AIDS was not familiar to people at that time. Instead of being admitted to hospitals, sick women were sent to the medical facilities specially designed to manage their conditions. Additionally, this helped to eliminate idleness, which was the main reason for impoverishment. In these facilities, female patients underwent mercury treatment, enabling them to quickly recover from STDs. Males were more likely to be admitted to hospitals. In addition to the mercury treatment, physicians recommended adequate bed rest (Schneider, 2011). Regardless of gender and age, patients in low-income households faced humiliation and neglect b they had to share their diagnosis with the public. However, wealthy individuals could get private, confidential treatment and did not need to be as concerned about their reputation. Although the chronic disease can be managed, the presence of stigma poses a significant burden on communities. Physicians and public workers trigger stigmatization by providing patients with different care. While wealthy individuals could easily address their healthcare issues, poor people continued to rely on public resources. Therefore, the progression of diseases, illnesses, infections and the level of income became interrelated at the time. Poverty makes people vulnerable to a number of medical conditions; power and inequality trigger stigma.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, stigmatization has become commonplace. Physicians claimed that patients failed to get proper treatment because of moral weaknesses, though none of them ever questioned the effectiveness of therapies and medicines (Kumar & Gupta, 2012). Numerous past cases prove that healthcare providers have to be careful when assigning antiretroviral therapy and other medication due to the likelihood of failure. Therefore, there is a great need to alleviate HIV/AIDS burden by including the protection of human rights, as well as prevention and treatment in formalized guidelines. Caregivers should examine global health, consider previous experiences and cases, and inform the public about the possible consequences of inaction and refusal to undergo regular check-ups.
Importance of Documented and Published Healthcare Disparities/Inequalities
Inequality and disparity in the healthcare system often exist because of the racial and ethnic differences prevailing in many communities. As a result, people get poor quality of care, and they are not satisfied with the provided services. Their clinical needs are not met, so their well-being deteriorates. Thus, timely and effective interventions are crucial. Disparities in the healthcare provision emerge mostly due to the lack of qualified specialists, patient engagement, geographic isolation, and poverty. The inequality affects poor people themselves, as well as the way they work and perform. As a result, the entire healthcare system faces unnecessary additional costs (Holtz, 2016). The relevant bodies recognize the importance of documenting and publishing cases of inequality and disparity in specific sources. Healthcare professionals, working with data, record patients’ health statuses and conditions. By doing this, they seek to reduce the potential disparity and inequality. Sometimes, healthcare specialists possess incomplete information about diseases and do not get the complete health history of a patient. If providers document and publish disparities in a timely and regular manner, they increase patient awareness, self-effectiveness, client engagement, and safety. If medical specialists professionally approach the documentation of inequalities and disparities in healthcare systems, they can significantly reduce the number of such cases and ensure uninterrupted access to all vital services.
The Formalized Regulatory Guidelines
In the context of HIV/AIDS, unawareness and stigmatization pose significant danger to health equality. In many communities populated by racial minorities, people of various ages believe in the stereotypes surrounding this chronic condition, mostly due to the attitudes towards one’s own health and deviant behavior. Therefore, there is a great need to develop and introduce comprehensive and formalized regulatory guidelines because they will help eradicate stigma and encourage people to be more responsible for their own actions and health. The engagement of competent authorities and communities is crucial in this regard. Structural conditions and shortcomings as well as structural issues lead to significant healthcare inequities in the racial minority communities. Regulatory guidelines emphasizing human health and wealth are supposed to address the stigma and make the lives of vulnerable members of society less difficult. Updated regulations provide alternative options in regard to prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and other venereal diseases. They include such aspects as annual testing and retesting, vaccine recommendations, and counseling messages. These regulations and guidelines aimd at treating and preventing chronic conditions are valuable and useful. Health and safety laws and codes are critical because they ensure the provision of high-quality and timely care to patients in need.
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Guidelines incorporate valuable recommendations which were developed using systematic approaches with a focus on prevailing standards. HIV/AIDS prevention, as well as management of other conditions, has been the core aspect of integrated guidelines that have significantly affected the entire medical practice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, policymakers, government, providers, public workers, and legislators have introduced the Act against AIDS. Its main goal is to fight inequality and eradicate the burden of HIV/AIDS. This program helps the vulnerable embers of society by increasing awareness and preventing chronic illnesses through education and testing.
The public may notice the alleviation of stigma due to the introduction of formalized regulatory guidelines. The Act against AIDS may require amendments that fit current trends and conditions, so that healthcare organizations will benefit in their professional capacity. A federal inter-agency working group has developed a national strategy for addressing the implications in the context of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Nurses and other healthcare providers refer to this document when releasing their own comprehensive plans. Their actions and efforts are directed towards the alleviation of the epidemic burden. Guidelines are mostly intended for medical specialists engaged in the caregiving process, as well as policymakers, HIV-infected patients, and people living in areas with limited resources. In fact, these regulations and standards are mostly developed by physicians who possess significant experience in treating chronic illnesses, infections, and providing training for other specialists to properly address complications. All recommendations are user-friendly and fit the national guidelines and current medical trends.
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Moral, Legal or Ethical Issues in Global Healthcare for HIV/AIDS
Ethics play a critical role in global healthcare and clinical practice. Medical specialists promote confidentiality in regard to HIV testing and screening. U.S. officials have developed and introduced a law that protects medical records. Due to the fact that diseases and health-related information have become more sensitive in recent years, some states have decided to amend the current legislation and provide additional protection, particularly to the vulnerable members of population. Consulting and thorough medical investigation help to avoid any potential health-related issues and determine what kind of care should be provided. However, in order to carry out a medical investigation, physicians are required to get informed consent from patients. Furthermore, it is crucial to reveal any ethical reasons why people refuse to get treatment and pass testing, address them, and engage people in these important and vital procedures (Holtz, 2016). Additionally, clinicians should share information on the benefits of mandatory tests to manage incurable conditions. Criminal laws impose sanctions on people who violate them.
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The specific cases of HIV/AIDS should be controlled as well, particularly if the diagnosis is unknown. U.S. officials have criminalized sexual contact between healthy and infected people. The main reason for this radical step is that an HIV-positive person may not disclose their status to partners. Ethicists criticize the law that forces individuals to go through testing and highlight the fact that there is no cure for HIV/AIDS. The competent bodies can properly address these legal and moral issues by promoting patient consent and increasing public awareness.
Despite the concerns and arguments regarding personal responsibility and ethics, adult and young people do not change their habits, attitudes, and behavior. They fail to adhere to rational and ethical principles; most of them simply ignore public concerns and recommendations provided by specialists. However, no one can deny the fact that clinicians should promote ethical values and teach the youth how to act in specific situations and make informed decisions. Adequate protection does not necessarily mean that the rights of young people will be violated in regard to sexual intercourse and private life. The main goal is to increase people’s awareness of the risks and promote safety through formalized regulatory guidelines.
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Young people may agree or refuse to share information about their current health and other conditions. Only the people themselves can decide whether they want to undergo treatment. Competent bodies can also provide the right to confidentiality (Schneider, 2011). Legally, no one can oblige a person to share the HIV-positive status of their patient. No specific federal, state, and local laws have been developed and passed in recent years. Laws differ between the states and, therefore, debates concerning responsibility continue.
Burden of Chronic Care Related to HIV/AIDS
In recent years, antiretroviral therapy has proven its effectiveness in maintaining the health of HIV-infected people. The public is currently wondering whether the end of this chronic condition is possible. The individuals who receive lifelong treatment, including therapy, do not have to fear HIV/AIDS any more. Unfortunately, the treatment cannot completely restore the immune system, so such serious and severe complications as cancer and cardiovascular diseases are unavoidable. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in fighting HIV, the burden of this chronic condition is still huge. Therefore, healthcare providers are concerned with the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS and its direct impact on the health of vulnerable members of society. However, if the public is not aware of the epidemic and gets no relevant and timely treatment, the functioning of the entire healthcare system will be disrupted. As a result, people’s health will deteriorate. Culyer (2014) finds it hard to develop the appropriate models of chronic care in the areas that lack vital resources. The resolution of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment issues requires global efforts.
The introduction of a relevant cure can decrease the burden of chronic care related to this serious condition. Unfortunately, even sophisticated healthcare systems in developed and high-income countries cannot guarantee effective delivery of care. Due to the chronic nature of HIV/AIDS, the joint efforts of policymakers, legislators, public workers, and healthcare providers are necessary. Fortunately, the introduction of antiretroviral therapy improved the current trends and reduced the burden imposed on vulnerable communities. High rates of morbidity and mortality related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic affect not only the well-being of HIV-infected patients, but also the health of aging population. Resource-limited countries that lack a chronic care model suffer the most from disparities, inequality, and injustice associated with access to care. The issues related to treating and caring for people suffering from HIV and other chronic diseases led to global efforts to develop the cure.
Healthcare Productivity and Economic Costs
There is a great need to expand access to care and services related to HIV/AIDS. Medical specialists are likewise affected as a result of the financial and healthcare burden. In some countries, the rates of morbidity and mortality among care providers increase as well. Healthcare productivity deteriorates due to the increased number of patients, stress, tension, and workplace hazards. Due to complex working conditions, caregivers should be provided with rewards and relevant compensation. Otherwise, neglect may trigger the migration of physicians to other states and cause shortage of doctors in hospitals and healthcare organizations. Furthermore, the the HIV/AIDS-related economic costs are quite significant. In 2017, U.S. officials have allocated $34 billion to domestic and global efforts in regard to this chronic condition. A part of this budget was spent on prevention of chronic diseases nationwide (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2016). $2.7 million was provided to entities and agencies to conduct additional research. $54 million was spent on the promotion of HIV/AIDS initiative within racial minority communities. Funds spent on alleviating the global epidemic exceed the expenses spent on domestic efforts.
In addition to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, the USA fund efforts directed towards the prevention of tuberculosis and malaria. Therefore, the passage of relevant healthcare laws promoting productivity and the development of comprehensive programs will protect patients’ health, safeguard their fundamental rights, and provide vulnerable groups with compassionate treatment. The rate of mortality and morbidity is high nationwide as well as worldwide. However, clinics and hospitals will increase healthcare productivity through the engagement of professional staff. The economic burden related to the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases is significant. Costs include expenses on control programs, administration, elimination of barriers, hospitalization, medication, prevention, diagnosis, and testing.
HIV/AIDS is a chronic medical condition that affects cells, human body, general health, and the immune system. Immunodeficiency develops as a result. Numerous cases reveal that the stigmatization prevents providers from delivering relevant care and services to vulnerable groups of people. In the past, such a phenomenon as HIV/AIDS did not exist. It has first developed in the 1980’s. However, stigma continues to hinder medical progress. In order to address inequalities and disparities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and legislators should develop relevant HIV/AIDS solutions. Despite the existence of effective and successful treatment methods, including antiretroviral therapy, not all people report their conditions and take medication in a timely fashion. If a person refuses to engage in treatment, no one can force them to undergo testing or medical procedures. However, the importance of taking care of one’s health should be prioritized. Disparities can only enhance the burden of HIV/AIDS worldwide. Therefore, the efforts and professional approach of reputable healthcare organizations directed towards documenting inequalities and disparities can properly address this issue.
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