Developmental Stage: this period is characterized by a strong sense of independence. Autonomy of their own decisions is a major concern for the kids of this age. If the parents succeed within this period, the child gets the necessary feeling of his own autonomy. In case they do not gain success during this stage of upbringing the most frequent are feelings of doubt and shame that the child can experience.
Erickson’s Developmental Stage: during this stage of development the kids begin to explore the environment and this is a life necessity to make them believe that they have control and own power over the objects of the environmental surrounding. In case of failure children can experience disapproval for exerting too much of their power exploring the surroundings. Sometimes they can have a sense of guilt that is very dangerous during the growth period.
Erickson’s Developmental Stage: the kids have to face various social and academic challenges that they have to perform successfully in order to get the appreciation of adults. If they are successful during this stage they have a sense of healthy competence with their companions and classmates. However, the feelings of inferiority become acquainted to those who fail to become successful and to fulfill the required demands.
Answers to the questions:
1. Younger age groups are similar in the fact that the nurse can use toys and different game techniques while examining them, while it is not possible to speak with them and ask questions if they are not speaking yet. The older groups of children like preschool kids and younger school children cannot be interested in toys, however, they are more likely to speak and tell the nurse what their feelings are what really hurts. If there is a restraint on the part of a younger child it is still possible to make an assessment with the help of the parents only. Whilst, the older kids can change their minds if the nurse finds the way t establish trust with a child.
2. One of the most important parts of knowledge is the difference in examining cildren and adults. The nurse that can handle the process of examination and physical assessment of a child is a real professional in communication and cultural sphere. The main difference is that all the children do not have a stable and distinct understanding of the processes that take place in their organism. Adults have a bigger life experience and can compare their feelings to some real processes while describing it giving the necessary information to the nurse. The most difficult thing while interacting with a child is to make him trust the nurse and tell all the possible feelings and answer the questions with the most distinct description. It is important to remember that children are more emotional than adults, and every nurse has to take into consideration their spiritual characteristics. It is necessary to remember that because of the possible cultural differences there should be a set of questions considering the parents’ answers. To handle out the physical assessment of a child every nurse has to have a set of crayons and paper, some toys and colorful objects as all that may be necessary while examining the child. A nurse has to use some interesting techniques and be creative while performing the examination. One of the most important points to consider is that children are not the adults and they require more attention, more emotion and positive attitude in general in case a nurse wants to achieve a success while dealing with a child.
Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:
Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern: a child has a normal metabolism system and all the systems function normally.
A child has some difficulties with digesting some specific kinds of food, has difficulties with urinary system.
Pattern of Elimination: a child takes the food according to the specific time schedule and all the digesting system function normally.
A child has some problems with digesting food or some skin problems.
Pattern of Activity and Exercise: a child participates in various activities and can do simple physical exercises that are not difficult for the kid.
A child has some difficulties wiith performing some easy exercise.
Cognitive/Perceptual Pattern: a child expresses himself without any difficulty and can say the particular thing that is willing to render to a listener.
A child experiences some difficulties with expressing himself and, referring to the particular age groups, does not know some simple words that are necessary for expressing the idea.
Pattern of Sleep and Rest: a child has enough sleeping hours during the night and begins his days easy and having good rest.
The kid has some abnormalities with the sleeping hours, cannot sleep through the night and has some cases of insomnia.
Pattern of Self-Perception and Self-Concept: a child is satisfied with his or her appearance and has no problems with describing the state of his health. A child has some problems with realizing his appearance, experiences some stress caused by his physical state.
Role-Relationship Pattern: a child understands his role relationship situation.
Sexuality – Reproductive Pattern: cannot be applied for these age groups.
Pattern of Coping and Stress Tolerance: a child can cope with his simple problems and solve some intellectual issues on his own or with a little help of an adult person. It is simple and easy for a child to solve little tasks and perform easy issues with some additional help.
A child cannot solve some simple tasks or issues and is in the constant stress considering this process of constant not satisfactory situation within the life situation.
Pattern of Value and Beliefs: a person has strong beliefs and appreciates specific values. A person is confident in the apprehension of the surrounding objects and has personal idea of the existing facts.
A child does not have personal beliefs and concerns and trusts all that is said by adult people.
A child does not believe the adults and does not have his own concerns and is in the constant stress referring the surrounding situation.
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