1. In general, empirical evidencemay be defined as a posteriori that consists of experimentation and observation. It is a fact that has already happened and can be proved by facts. Experiments play a pivotal role in the arguments based on empirical evidence, since they should be conducted and show the same results despite the observer’s personality. However, it is necessary to mention that some things that were previously seen as facts are incorrect now. For instance, a long time ago, humans perceive the Earth to be flat based on the results of scientific studies. Nowadays, this information is incorrect since the globe has a flattened sphere. What is more, empirical evidence is repeatable by anyone; however, its results can be incorrect due to the wrong interpretation (Dudgeon 1). Finally, it is worth mentioning that arguments based on empirical evidence can be formed on at least one of the five senses, such as hearing, seeing, smell, taste, touch, touch, smell, and taste. On the contrary, arguments based on empirical opinions are perspective since they are built on somebody’s thoughts and beliefs. Opinions cannot be repeated under controlled scientific conditions and analyses. Moreover, they may be regularly changed depending not on scientific results, but on the person’s mood or his/ her religious beliefs. Thus, it is clear that opinions are subjective, based on personal convictions and thoughts (Inglehart & Welzel 31). For instance, most of Buddhists believe that there exists life after death. This is a vivid example of thought based on argument since there is no logic and scientific explanation of the humans’ rebirth. On the other hand, empirical evidence corresponds with objective reality (Pickstone 35). For example, men and women are biologically different. This fact is clear and logically/ scientifically proved. While, gender preference of men over women is a subjective (opinion based on evidence) case since one person may assume that women are better than men.
2. It is clear that humans are integral and inevitable parts of society. The life of each individual displays the harmony/imbalance of community. Individual by nature is a social animal who lives and depends on others. For instance, a child is highly dependent on his parents who are responsible for his growth and upbringing. In the near future this child will become an adult who will bear responsibility for his own kids. Thus, it is clear that man and society are interrelated. People create community and the latter in its turn establishes conditions for human existence. Social order significantly influences each individual. Humans by nature are born to follow the same behavior and social organization of others. For instance, it is not new that children go to the kindergartens (because they got used to go to them). They attend this institution because this behavior is common and necessary for society. Thus, it is evident that each human behavior is an example of typification in which actors follow absolutely the same requirements and needs of society. Undoubtedly, in this reciprocal chain, a person can demonstrate his/ her own points of view and different types of behavior; however, these light changes will not alter the global map of community and its harmony. It is clear that individuals influence each other, creating social institution that builds society (Berger & Luckmann 55).
3. Social inequality is defined as a way of division according to age, gender, and race peculiarities. It is clearly seen when some people treat others by giving the last group an access to the labor market or educational institutions (Walker 2). Social inequality can be vivid in two forms, such as personal (when one individual behaves badly towards other) and individualized (when educational institution or some other organizations treat badly the person because of some social differences). For instance, some Caucasians have bad attitude to Afro-Americans because of social segregation that happened a decade ago and has still influenced social views (Jones 1212). What is more, gender discrimination can be seen in the inability of women to vote and to make decisions in the Muslim countries. This can be explained by the fact that there male population has more rights comparing with female. Another good example is sexism against male population. For instance, boys who cry in public are believed to be ones with low self-esteem and indecisive (Macionis 67). Additionally, global inequality can be observed when in the 21st century the First world countries develop stable and the Third world countries still have poverty and even famine. The above social prejudices give birth to further social conflicts and wars (Grusky 35).
4. Personally, I have volunteered to clean the park and educated people that we should save the nature. Moreover, I have tried to help animal shelters, since I think that animals play a pivotal role in the global changes. To my point of view, nowadays humans have faced many problems not because of the nature, but because of human unthinkable and illogical behavior to consume more electricity and natural resources. It is true that in nature everything is correlated; thus a single person can change the whole map of future development or can lead to future destabilization and collapse. Personally, I have cleaned in the park not only to show my conscious behavior, but also to demonstrate that our future depends on us. We should not wait that somebody will come and say that we should make a team and make serious decisions. I think that each person should just think that he/ she is strong enough to start on his/ her own; supporters and helpers will always find you.
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