Within the field of organizational and social psychological and other social subjects, the concept of identity is widely embraced. The theory of categorization helps in making sense of organizational and group identification (Turner, 1996; Hogg, 1987). This theory recognizes that group memberships and individual characteristics play an important role in shaping values, behavior, beliefs, thoughts and attitudes. With this focus, the interest in this theory mirrors the developing popularity techniques of group based management for example team building, group decision-making, organizational change and organizational culture. The formation of groups brings to life issues of social influence, crowd psychology and stereotyping.
The change and improvement in the field of technology and competition force the firms to encourage employees to work as a group. Team work in a firm is guided by communication and exchange of groups. However, it is hard to form a team out of people who might be working to pursue their own objectives. Some feel that they have too much to offer hence consider doing things their way in order to accomplish personal targets. On the other hand, others may feel inadequate for the task set hence expect those they perceive to be knowledgeable to come up with the results. Their only hope is there being a possibility of being associated with the final product or goal. This only means that different people try to rank each other.
People having the same traits and skills or money as the individual are categorized as in group members while those from a different from that an individual are known as the outgroup members. Haslam et al 1995) observed that different groups cropped up in a project. Engineers would speak to their colleagues but tended to distinguish themselves from the other group under them. Age, sex and race are the other factor that affects the contribution of some people in a team. The above information leads to a principle of functional rivalry where one group tends to dominated over the other in decision making.
Organization culture is taken to be a control to the social biasness. The control tries to create a positive behavior. In a business those who like associating themselves with a particular social class should not be punished but should instead be paid according to the output. Those who like working as a group should be paid according to the collective output (Anderson, 1984).
People prefer sharing ideas and skills in the collective culture than working alone. The only factor hindering their hopes and expectation the cultural difference. This is due to the fact that the individuals unwillingly find themselves fitting into a group and categorizing other employees in the firm into different groups. This hampers the abilities of firms to employ the strategy of teamwork since the grouping renders the teamwork ineffective. Notably, people sharing the same group tend to lose interest on the other group. This makes the issue of cultural inclination to be very sensitive.
People may form groups or in other words identify himself with a particular race, sex or nationality. In business it is evident that employees try to fit in different groups in order to have their presence recognized in others and expecting to become less popular in others. Notably, who fail to identify a group of their level may fail to benefit of prove to less productive. Those who identify a group maneuver easily to success and prosperity (Brewer & Kramer, 1986). There are others who are smart enough to change their attitude, behavior and feeling in order to fit in a higher class group. This entails learning the traits and getting some skills through part-time training and getting to change the feeling for the group. Failure to drop the grudges or fear for the group complicates the process of interacting with the prestigious group members.
In some countries elf categorization forces people to come up with associations in order to publicize their groups. The groups may still move farther to share religious beliefs and moral behaviors. The groups in America relied on many factors, for example, political factors, social factors, business prospects, level of education and leisure activities. The United States citizens form groups in the name of shaping the world and changing it for the better. Many groups and association in the United States and Western countries have been centered in the running of businesses, colleges, churches, universities, trade unions, charitable organizations and others. The members constantly change their roles and share skills to ensure that the society fancy their efforts. These efforts also ensure that the individual’s popularity does not deteriorate. The Americans behave and feel in a manner that depicts that personal responsibility to them is the key to success and prosperity. The group skills mainly target to strengthen rather than complicating their individuality.
Self-categorization depends an individual classify himself, more importantly only the people he perceives to have the traits that matches his. The process of self categorization helps ascertain how an individual is able to control his behavior (Haslam et al, 1995). Self categorization falls into two classes. The first class is known as the collective level. This relates the individual behavior and that of the group. The next class is the individual level. This shows the differences between the members of the same group. The process of stereotyping people is known as depersonalization. This is caused by the transition from personal to social identity.
Depersonalization means that a person joins a group that takes a collective responsibility over matters of the society or group. Self categorization means that a person deals with issues solely. Self categorization only means that a person tries to prove a point that a person is special and is capable of doing extraordinary things (Bettencourt & Sheldon, 2001). Like the group, element of superiority also takes over as a person tries to prove his seniority beyond others and groups in a society. Any individual is likely to attract the attention of a multitude more than a group will do. This method hence seem promising to those who employ this strategy to achieve their goals in life.
The person may feel that thinking and working alone could easily lead to prosperity and fame. People still feel that by the virtual of a person wanting to work individually, he has to fall under a social class, (Hogg, 2001). This is the analysis that people do on their own thus making the whole process of wanting to be independent futile. However, the self actualization may tend to develop other interests. People with a higher rate of individualization remain at their level the individuality in a group is determined by the contribution in the group. This depicts that can still raise his individuality in a group by being aggressive.
Nobody restricts a person on which actualization technique to employ. One is at liberty to exercise self actualization without any disturbance from a group or competing individuals. Self-categorization correlates with the group membership. A person should fit in a group easily without any need to struggle. The relationship between a person and the group depends on the qualities of the individual and the group (Tuner, 1996). Individualization can be said to have two parts namely differentiation and independence. The part of independency works with the group where the prestigious group members refuse to interact with those from low class groups. On the other hand, differentiation works for the group members. This mainly applies when the low class group members relate with external individuals.
People also consider factors that guided the formation of the group before joining it. There are groups formed on the basis of vested innterests of individual; probably they target to use the group as a ladder or on the basis of group objectives. The groups should be strengthened by letting individualization run internally in the group. Individualization in this case is healthy since it leads to competition geared towards the success of the firm.
Self-actualization is guided by self regulation. Self regulation shows how easily a person is able to control his behavior, feelings and perceptions (Brewer & Kramer, 1986). A person who has enough self control is likely to achieve the results faster than a person who is quick to anger, careless and visionless. A visionless may do things to pass the time and rely on illegal means or luck to achieve their dreams. Notably, people who treasure self reliance despise the idea of differentiation and treasure being taken in by a group. The only hope that drives them is that the large scaled groups would help lower the likelihood of ranking the group. A person with individualistic traits shuns the idea of group ranking, competition and stereotyping but works towards the achievement of the firm’s goals which automatically means that he will achieve what he wanted to achieve (David & Turner, 2001). The people having individual interests view other group members as being different from them.
A research was conducted on students to determine whether they liked the group or working alone. Many desired to be alone but this became harder than expected. What triggered their dislike for the group work was that they felt it as a waste of time and increasing the classroom workload. The other factors for the unpopularity of the groups are the stress of finding a perfect match. Some students feel that they are too bright and any minute spent with a weak student is a waste of time. Some students may form a group depending on how they can put up with others habits without becoming offended. However, to the students, independence serves to relieve and individual off the stress.
Individuals in a group may be united by a common goal but their personal feelings have a wide variety. The first feeling is that of individualism. The nature of the human behavior is that he desires to lead while others follow. This lowers the level of the group member’s similarity. Individuality comes as a challenge to other members who may react harshly but also join in the long run when they notice the nature of the competition and the prize. Individuality may offend others to extent of justifying their need for compensation of their efforts. The self verification process may be used as a tool to counter the incoming challenge, which forms individuality. Individuality means that one stops relying on the group and reasons as an independent person (David & Turner, 2001). This appears hard at the preliminaries but enjoys the freedom after gaining enough composure. People always want to make decisions on their own and implement them solely as it seems to efficient and time sensitive. Any person who can take part in a competition feels that they have something special that can guarantee their win. Individuality works under the same principal. Individuality is supported by being brave and risk taker and accountability. An individual should have high self –esteem, patience and humility as choosing to defy the strategy of individuals of some people who came into terms with.
Self actualization is hence a very critical issue in the society that is understandable. Human beings have different tastes, preferences, objectives and perceptions. There are those who may use a group as a sign of prestige. This means that they associate themselves with a group of preference and reach. Others recognize the value of working alone to their success. The individuality means that a person may use a group or work alone in order to be recognized. To achieve all these dreams means that a person has to work on the behaviors, feelings and thinking speed so as to face the challenge ahead.