Poverty is a social phenomenon that is triggered by plenty of factors which very often are combined. Some of them depend upon the person, while others exist regardless of a person’s intentions and desires.
Very often, it is rather hard for a poor individual to see the light at the end of the tunnel and get out of non-rich surroundings. A number of obstacles hamper people to accumulate wealth and well-being. They may include the so-called psychology of poverty which refers to the way of thinking and models of behavior that prevent a person from becoming rich. It could also be unequal distribution of power between different social groups as well as a rigid stratification inside the community. Indeed, it is rather hard in some countries, for example, to get the highest official positions without bribery or close personal relations with the influential and powerful people. In addition, rich and poor people do differ from birth. The rich get everything as granted: excellent education, wonderful and promising job perspectives. They even marry those who are of the same rank and social position; then, the capitals are doubled. On the other hand, poor children should focus upon survival. Frequently, the choice is made for them by others. At first, they go to public school having no other alternative. Then having no specific education, they choose low-paid jobs and marry people as poor as they are. They start bearing children, and the circle repeats. Therefore, unequal opportunities of the poor and rich and the wide gap between them are the very first reasons of poverty.
Secondly, in order to find better life conditions, people choose the most rdical way which is immigration. The countries which do not strive for changing (which is the modern trend for all the developed states) and development usually lose its most prominent and valuable citizens as they leave the country which does not provide them with career opportunities and challenges they are ready to face. Low rate of technological advance combined with traditional resistance to change is a thrilling mixture leading the country to the nets of poverty. Nowadays, the advances made in the sphere of technology could save a lot of public and private money which is needed for other purposes. A lot of financial operations in the developed countries are made electronically, which accelerates their overall financial life. The communication made through the modern technologies also speeds up business operations. Therefore, taking into consideration these two examples, the country could not move forward without technological development, and the policy of resistance could only lead to poverty of its citizens as they would not be able to cope with the modern international market challenges. The resistance to change and its outcomes could be best shown while examining Belarus which is a totalitarian state whose President is not going to transform the country into a democratic, industrial, and flourishing state; thus, it is no longer attractive for its citizens (Poverty Report, 2011). On the other hand, people living there seem to agree with their life conditions and the policy of their President. Those few who need more freedom to develop themselves are forced to leave the country in order to find new horizons which will fit their needs. They, in fact, could become a threat for the future of the given community as it becomes empty due to thhe withdrawal of its successful members. The country lacking its own professionals would be forced to hire the foreign ones and pay them money which could be spent on any other needs. Such countries would not be able to introduce certain innovations to the world but compelled to buy them abroad, which would make such products more and more expansive for the citizens.
One more thing that might cause poverty and make people leave their own motherlands is gender inequality (Francis, 2006). For sure, even nowadays, there are a lot of countries where women are not only granted rights but where their fundamental freedoms are abused at every step. In addition, certain cultures still consider women as people who play the second role in political, social, and economic spheres of life. In some countries, especially in the Arabic world, women are still subject to numerous restrictions. Therefore, those who are aware of personal value and consider themselves to be worth more than just a shadow of a man and who do not agree with the traditional views upon secondary role of women migrate to the USA, the country which promises equal opportunities for everyone. Unfortunately, poverty emerges when there is a rapid increase of population and irrespective low economic growth. In such situations, human labor is less valued as there are a lot of people to fill in the vacant places, and everyone could be easily replaced.
In conclusion, poverty is caused by a number of factors, for example, gender inequality, stratification of social groups, rapid population increase, etc. All of them are to be addressed separately as they are different in nature and need various kinds of responses to them.
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