Table of Contents
Culture is considered to be a soul specific behavior that is acquired overtime. Therefore, culture can be viewed as some process. An existing pattern of behavior is modified. The innovator is consistent one within the close performers. The one who acquires the patterns retain the ability to perform it long time after having acquired it.
Advertising is a method of promoting product or service through media channels, which usually is accompanied with the marketer paying for placing the advert. This field is characterized with a lot of dynamism as innovative technologies arise that enhance the process of advertising. There are 4 P’s of advertising, also known as 4 P’s of marketing. The first one is on the product which communicates the consumer’s needs. Pricing is another aspect which translates to the process of locating a price for product or service. Placement is such a term that refers to how product or service reaches the consumer. It is involved with the distribution chain that allows product to come from a manufacturer to a consumer. Lastly, promotion refers to the actual process of promoting sales and publicity.
There is a big relationship between advertising and culture. Advertisement makes one feature of mass communication, especially, on how programming is done and the context conveyed to the masses. It is quite disheartening how indigenous cultures and languages are disappearing every day. The anthropologists’ and linguists’ research shows that a unique language or practice disappears when the existing speakers dies due to the fact that the modern generation lose interest in learning the ancient practices.
As we ceremoniously ushered in our 21st century, 7,000 human languages which are approximately about a half of those spoken in the whole world were not passed to younger generation and so they became extinct. You can imagine this happening as to your own culture, language or people.
This was just but the tip of the iceberg, along with people and culture disappearing, are the ancient crafts, arts, vocational tips, fork-lore, indigenous people and customs. This is termed as ‘Erosion of The Ethnosphere’ by Wadl Davis. Various journalists have started up projects to shun the frightening disappearing rate of indigenous practices globally. The practice is non-profitable and aims at documenting ancient practices and empowering indigenous communities all over the world to appreciate and pass their customs to the next generation.
The wisdom and perspectives in the traditional world is needed in the modern world more than ever. Sustainability in the modern world is not any longer a buzzword but the basic need. This is because there are million lessons to learn from the ancient practices. In research to look for cure the journalists have visited various places and among them, for example, Nepal to study and document the lives of the Loba people. This is an ethnic group living in the Himalayas, a rain shadow region. They practice farming as their economic activity and do cultivation in their firms to get food.
In addition to making money from tourist attraction, the existing indigenous customs can bring more contributions to human race taken as a whole. The projects should concentrate in helping those particular groups to appreciate what they do and assist them to pass their specific behavior to their younger generation.
Cultural Advertising in Africa
Africa is the second largest and second most populated continent in the world. African cultures include all the different cultures within the African continent. Africa is home to a huge number of diverse cultures which mostly vary according to ethnicities. Unlike other continents in the world which have static cultures, the cultures within Africa have varied greatly.
Nonetheless, the majority of these cultures have been changing rapidly due to integration with other world cultures (Sardanis 2007, p. 97). From a natural resource point of view, Africa is considered as the wealthiest or second wealthiest continent on earth. However, Africa still remains quite poor due to its inability to utilize its resources. However, due to advances in technology and adoption of new methods of manufacturing, a number of African economies are emerging as fastest growing ones. This makes Africa an appealing hub for investors from all parts of the world who want to explore new business opportunities (Alozie 2009, p. 241). For a long time Africans have maintained longstanding traditional culture which defines their social life, norms, religious beliefs, modes of production and distribution of commodities. Thus, the challenge of exploring the opportunities and at present remains appealing to the diverse cultures of Africa emerging.
The primary aim of advertising is to inform and educate consumers. Members of a certain community in the society tend to conform to certain norms, including language, perceptions, religion and attitudes. In a market economy, therefore, advertisers have to employ quite a number of values in their advertisements. Putting into consideration the various cultures of consumers is one of the best ways to make product or service more appealing or interesting to them. It motivates buyers and modifies their attitudes towards purchasing and consuming certain commodities (Alozie 2009, p. 279). Nigerian culture refers to the characteristics of Nigerian people and it encompasses everything starting from religion, music, arts and other social habits. Culture is supposed to live beyond the people who found it. People find themselves encompassed within certain cultures. However, in most circumstances culture may tend to die since it’s carried and transferred in the mind (Bowden & Wilson 2010, p. 411).
Human beings will always want to associate themselves with certain cultures. Mass media in Nigeria has been actively used in supporting consumerism and the messages passed across reflect as much as possible certain cultural values that appeal to customers. However, some of the advertisements pass across Western related cultures (European cultures). Traditional Nigerian cultures and Western cultures are used to advertise on fifty-fifty basis without one dominating the other (Alozie 2009, p.319). Cultural advertising relies heavily on using overwhelmingly persuasive and symbolic images to market goods and services through associating these symbols with certain socially desirable traits. However, Nigeria being a developing nation is prone to some form of manipulation by multinational organizations which use advertising to convey propaganda. This in the process spreads Western cultural messages, lifestyle and their social economic values at the expense of Nigerian traditional cultures (Malefyt & Moelan 2003, p. 324).
The Nigerian government has not put strict laws and measures into place to regulate the advertising industry. However, a government agency is used to oversee the activities of the industry. Trade organizations also conduct self regulation to ensure that members conform to the rules and regulations during advertising. These trade regulating organizations ensure that advertisers do not make exaggerated claims about products (McFall 2010, p. 114)
Differences existing in the messages used in advertising within the mass media are often assumed to reflect different cultures. It may be argued that these differences are essential in advertising and cultural values both within and across cultures. Varied cultural values and ideas have been manifested in advertisements in Nigerian mass media advertising (Bowden & Wilson 484). Consumers and advertisers share common values and meanings due to their never ending interactions. However, the goals of consumers are quite different from those of producers. Consumers see mass media advertising as a source of information about goods and services which helps them to make purchasing decisions. Advertisers on the other hand, use the media to manipulate and persuade consumers to buy their products.
Advertisers, who want to appeal to the cultural people of Nigeria, start by understanding the beliefs and social system of the people. By being knowledgeable about their beliefs and practices, it is easy to be more appealing advertisements to them, hence increase the sales (Sardanis 2007, p. 211).
In Nigeria and other developing countries in Africa, the different goals of marketers and advertisers influence on the consumers’ interpretation of advertisement messages. A consumers understanding of an advertisement message occurs consciously or sub consciously being influenced by a group’s socially shared values and not necessarily by personal characteristics. Advertisements in Nigeria contain quite a number of positive cultural values which reflect Nigerian traditional social values. The positive values include love, savings, family, gifts, endurance, care for nature, good health, personal development, truth, wisdom, honesty and spiritual development. However, there are several negative messages, especially from the West. These Western values include sex, dependence, laziness, economic distortion, pleasure, individualism and exploitation of nature (Watkins 2011, p. 147).
The world at large can learn quite a number of lessons from Nigeria and their advertisements. The mass media in Nigeria tends to use family to pass across messages together, good parenting, hard work, respect and authority. A number of the advertisements also portray other admirable values like good health, hard work, success and equality of women. While portraying Women as professionals at the workplace, the advertisements also remind them of their roles of feeding their families. Mass media advertisements that portray women as subordinates to men were more appealing because their norms state that women should be submissive to their husbands. In Nigeria, motherhood is a virtue and a role that women play bigger part than their male counterparts. Therefore, in most food advertisements women are the ones who feed the children (Malefyt 2003, p. 399).
As Nigeria is a developing nation, mass media tends to use developmental themes in advertising. Advertisers have incorporated traditional cultural messages in encouraging development at both individual and national level. A number of traditional advertisements have also been used to encourage foreign values like education. In a country where communities are still ruled by kings, they have also been incorporated in many advertisements since they are the leaders of these people. It is also evident that Nigerians treasure their form of dressing and even in advertisements they are captured wearing their traditional garments (Alozie 2009, p. 339).
Most traditional cultural based advertisements are more appealing to older individuals in the society while western cultural based advertisements are more appealing to the youth. Western values also seem more acceptable to people living in urban areas like Lagos more than to people living in the rural places (Bowden & Wilson 2010, p. 489). However, advertisements should not be discouraged. They should be encouraged and monitored by government agencies and trade organizations. Good advertisements are those that promote goods and services and at the same time are the media that encourages socio cultural development among the people of Nigeria (Sardanis 2007, p. 301).
In Nigeria, different ethnic cultures exist differently in terms of language. Language can be a great barrier when it comes to interpreting and understanding an advertisement. A native speaker, therefore, cannot be used in a national broadcasting television station. Failure to which may result to cultural conflict. One admirable aspect in Nigerian is the co-existence of culture. People belonging to different communities live together in harmony and respect of the cultures of the other communities. For instance, Muslims and Christians co-exist peacefully (Alozie 2009, p. 341).
South Africa comprises many communities with varied cultures and semi-cultures. These cultures are differentiated according to their ethnic, religious ones and language. These are the main factors which separate South African cultures. However, in addition to these diverse cultures is a difference in race,
Interpretation and understanding of any advertisement is preceded by meanings defined within a cultural tradition mediated through language. People are defined according to their culture and they can belong to more than a single culture. For instance, a kid of parents from different cultures ends up with more than one culture (Watkins 2011, p. 184). However, there are norms and values that are accepted in large societal settings that are used in judging or determining the moral behavior of individuals in the society. These norms define what is right and what is wrong and whoever does wrong is punished accordingly. In the same way, advertisers should adhere to these cultural norms if they want to increase sales of their goods and services. People always want to associate themselves with certain cultural values. Thus, an advertisement of the commodity that observes certain cultural values tends to be more appealing to certain group of individuals who associate themselves with that culture (Reuvid 2009, p. 118).
In South Africa, a country with different cultures is necessary to have a translator. Some advertisements may not reach all the audience due to differences in language. Certain symbols also are found within certain cultures being missed in other cultures. These factors lead to challenges of cultural gaps. The translator, therefore, must put into consideration all the cultural differences while dealing with an advertisement because the advertisements are made within a specific culture. In South Africa, translators strive to ensure that different target audience has a similar understanding of an advertisement message. The translator should be very familiar with the elements that are active within each different target culture. More so, the translator should familiarize himself with the changes taking place within the various cultures (Morna & Ndlovu 2007, p. 145). However, due to the impact of multinational and global advertising, a number of advertisements have adopted Western cultures and especially American. These Western cultures have a negative effect on the traditional cultures. Traditional cultures are marginalized by the Western cultures and they tend to lose identity with time (Reuvid 2009, p. 199).
Culture goes hand in hand with people with different languages mostly having different cultures. People from different cultures have a tendency of interpreting and judging advertisements of other cultures according to their own cultural framework. These advertisements may often lead to misunderstanding and miscommunication, hence, the need for an effective translator (Brewer & Cruise 2010, p. 301). Persuasive advertisements within a cultural grouping should reflect the social interactions that prevail within that culture. This kind of advertisement manipulates the consumer making them to believe that it reflects reality and convinces the consumers into purchasing the advertised commodity. Persuasive advertisements create a world which perceives illusions to be reality. Multinationals advertise their products passing messages, virtues and lifestyle of capitalists. Trying their best to reflect living the American dream as the best and that everything American is good and should be followed (Reuvid 2009, p. 201).
For advertisement being effective, it must convey the intended meaning. Advertisers in South Africa have greatly employed the use of semiotics. Semiotics is the study of signs, symbols and their meanings. This is a very essential tool used in analyzing advertisements and uncovering their potential. Culturally tailored advertisements have quite a number of positive effects to business. This is because culturally aligned groups quickly familiarize themselves with your brand and the business develops customer loyalty in the process. National symbols in South Africa must be well understood by the marketers because it evokes emotions. National symbols bring up a very delicate matter due to South Africa’s political history. The advertisers must establish that the national symbols employed in an advertisement are acceptable to the people of different cultures. While dealing with diverse cultures, moral values and issues may lead to or not to adverse effects target customers. This may result in conflicting values which will lead to different interpretations and perceptions of the advertisement message (Morna & Ndlovu 2007, p. 188).
Multinationals can borrow quite a number of positive aspects that have been employed in South Africa’s cultural advertising, mainly the use of semiotics to create cultured symbols and the use of advertisement translators to make the advertisements acceptable in diverse cultures.
Successful advertising needs to incorporate the culture of the target audience in the advertisement messages. Several South African companies use more friendly yet cultured approach in advertising. The same commodity is advertised through native radio stations using the native languages of the target listeners. This kind of advertising makes the listeners to perceive the products as if they were their own (Brewer & Cruise 2010, p. 340). It creates a sense of ownership. Other advertisements portray pleasant memories of the past. For instance, some products are advertised by messages depicting how they won their freedom while others depict their heroes like Nelson Mandela. This way, most of inhabitants in South Africa easily associate themselves with the products (Reuvid 2009, p. 164).
Marketers in South Africa have proven that it is possible to include global cultures in advertising and at the same time local cultures without eroding the values that each represent. As they run advertisements of global products like Coca-Cola, they still run local advertisements of their products without one necessarily dominating the other (Morna & Ndlovu 2007, p. 277).
Cultural Advertising in Europe
Cultural advertising in Europe is that of major concern. Therefore, it is important to focus thoroughly on this area. There are several purposes of cultural advertisement in Europe. The main purpose is raising the sales of certain services and products. Advertisement is also done to create and uphold product identity and product image. The change of the product that already existed is also communicated through advertisement. A new product that is introduced to the market can only be known by customers through advertisement.
In most of the European countries, the levels of development in economy are similar. This makes it possible for cultural advertisements for the different European countries to be similar. The consumers of the products also have homogeneous attitudes. There are regulations and rules having been set by the European Union that ensure that cultural advertisement are conducted well. A country in Europe cannot advertise her products to be superior to others, but will look for better strategies to increase the sales.
The main role played by cultural advertising in Europe is to inform the audience about the advantages of using their products and not degrading brands in competition. Cultural advertisement competitive brands are allowed even if they come from African countries. This is because there will be healthy competition and the customers will have adequate information in deciding what to choose.
Cultural advertisement in Europe has also set rules concerning the use of children in cultural advertisement. In some countries like France a child cannot be used in advertisement of a product but may be shown consuming it in a film. The use of child and other aspects of advertisement will depend on culture of that country, but in most cases there is aspect of similarity. Choice of characters is therefore given the major concern.
Culture is given major consideration in interpreting the characters in the advertisements. The characters are depicted in a real life situation. The products are also associated with the specific context. Therefore, the choice of characters is important as it portrays the image of the country to the future customers (Johnson 2003). Cultural advertisement in Europe codes the advertisements to different categories. These categories are clothing, foods for pets and interrelated products: alcoholic beverages, finance and property, household cleaning agents, institutional, household appliances, medicines and drugs, retail outlets and restaurants, accessories and automobiles, personal and beauty care and drinks, food and soft drinks. Cultural advertisement of the category containing alcoholic beverages and retail outlets dominates in the most of the countries.
Cultural advertisements are further separated into three categories. The first category is purely local products using local advertisements. The second one is global products via national advertisements. The final category is international goods using international advertisements. Most of the cultural advertisements are found to deal with the products from Europe. African products are rarely advertised.
International cultural advertisements are either partly or wholly standardized in Europe. Cultural advertisements contain seven elements. These elements are music, slogan, text, scenic background, characters, lengthy and screen captions. These elements affect the aspect of standardization. The international advertisements must be in line with the country’s culture and advertising the products that are legal. International advertisements should also be coded to the local language where promotion is being done.
The developed European countries will use the most recent trends in cultural advertisement. Some of the advertisement techniques are dominant over several countries. The most dominant is online cultural advertisement. This is where products are displayed online accompanied by brief descriptions to be seen by customers all over the world (Johnson 2003). Customers can see the product and purchase them online. We can learn that there is the use of the most recent trends in cultural advertisement from the European countries.
Print cultural advertising is also common in the European countries. This involves the use of fliers, magazines, brochures and newspapers. Print media makes relatively a big percentage of the advertisements (Fitzgerald & Arnott 2000). Adverts will be placed on different pages in case if a newspaper is used. Advertising space is sold on the newspaper columns and many companies tend to use this technique since most people read print media. What we can learn is that this method is effective since most people in Europe like reading newspapers
Broadcast advertising is another technique that is used in cultural advertising. This involves use of radio and television channels. Television advertisements are found to be popular as a large number of people like watching television programs in Europe (Fitzgerald & Arnott 2000). Large scale advertisers use television advertisements despite using other methods of advertisement. Television charges depend on the air time being taken. Radio advertisement is not very common as many people are not regular listeners of the radio. In Europe, an observation can be done that advertisers place their adverts on both radio and televisions (Fitzgerald & Arnott 2000)
Outdoor cultural advertisement is also given a considerable preference. This involves the use of trade shows, bill boards and events. This technique attracts customers who are outdoors. Companies in Europe organize trade shows to promote their sales. Billboards are also widely used by various companies to grab the attention of those paassing by. Another excellent technique is organization of trade events which attracts attention from relatively large number of people.
Celebrity advertising is also seen in European countries. This attracts a large number of audiences. There are many musicians who are famous in the European countries and, therefore, they will get attention from many potential customers .The celebrities will be used to advertise the products in live concerts, televisions, billboards or newspapers. The celebrities have great popularity in European countries and associating with them will increase sales. So we can learn that this is such a trend that most European countries have adopted.
Surrogate cultural advertising is another technique. This is the advertisement of products that are banned by law or consumption of which is not encouraged. These products include products like cigarettes and alcohol which are not good to heath of people (Fitzgerald & Arnott 2000). Companies come up with another brand name and remind people indirectly on these products which are the technique that we can learn from Europe.
Covert advertising is another technique which is gradually getting famous in Europe. This is method of advertisement is unique in a way in advertising a product which is launched in channels of entertainment and media stations like televisions shows, movies and sports show. The brand or the product is advised partly at the time of the show (Johnson 2003). If it is a movie, the movie stars use the product.
The methods above methods of cultural advertisements make a considerable improvement in sales of these products. European countries aim at enhancing economic stability of the Europe countries. Therefore, there are not many restrictions on adverts of member states.
Advertisement, as a promotion tool in Europe, has seen a lot of growth and expansion in the recent past. The growth though has not been so swift. There are a lot of challenges which have led to retardation in the industry. However, the challenges have led to the discovery of more advanced ways of promotion for the various goods and services.
There are many factors that influence on what people do or the manner in which they live. People world-wide have differences in their habits, tastes and preferences. This in turn affects what people eat and determines their entertainment habits. Living habits are not homogenous all over the world. However, the main factor is the culture. It dictates how people live and what they like or dislike. This is an important consideration in marketing and in sales promotion.
One of the methods of sales promotion which had been in use for several decades is the personal selling. Some sales agents would move from one house door to another. This has however been regulated by the state leaving the practitioners with only the will to redesign better ways. The advance in technology has made it easier. There are better programs for advertisement, while regulations and controls in this field are being revised as political leadership changes every day (Terzis 2008).
Nevertheless, the rules that address advertising have not been relaxed. The rules that regulate on prejudiced commercial practices have been strengthened. The procedures demand that all advertisements to be true and non-deceiving in any manner to the consumers. This has been hard on the corporate world since many of the adverts are not accurate (Fitzgerald & Arnott 2000). The law has been a challenge, but the follow-ups by the various governments in the various states have led to its implementation. The advertisements are less misleading. This is a big lesson to all the other countries in case if they want to achieve the best of customers’ satisfaction.
A responsible sales promotion has a large impact on the health of the consumers. This is because advertisement directly affects the choices and preferences of the customers. In all the countries in Europe, there are various bodies that check on the standards of the products before they are allowed into the market (Johnson 2003). This has enhanced better health to the citizens. Some of the products, especially the foodstuffs, carry very flashy and attractive adverts. These have been cross checked and the consumers have been educated on their health effects. This has in turn led to healthy choices, hence prevention of diseases. The action has led to evolvement of similar regulatory bodies in other parts of the world.
The use of minors in advertisements has also faced stiff regulations. Beside regulation by the state, many of the companies that deal with food and drinks have made a self-commitment not to involve children under the age of 13 years old in advertisements. Though this has been a blow to some of the industries, it has promoted better health and nutrition. Many other countries are promoting the same approach when it comes to their cultural advertisements.
Another major challenge that has been a block in advertisement is the rapid change from traditional advertisement methods to more sophisticated digital methods. There are some companies that have had to redesign their marketing strategies, while others have been forced to lay off some workers to give way to the audio and TV advertisements (Johnson 2003). Penetration of cabling used to be a challenge, but this has now been tackled. Radios and TVs are all over Europe, and the quality of programs has been improved over the time. This has led to a symmetrical information flow and increase in the amount of sales (Fitzgerald & Arnott 2000)
The differences in the sociocultural environment had been a problem for a long time. The advertisements interpretation was used to be different from one country to another. The coding in one country could mean something else in another country, leading to a misinterpretation. However, this has been reduced in Europe by standardization of products and the use of a common language.
Online advertisement has further proved to be the best way of reaching consumers. All the European countries have well adapted to this new technology and companies are enjoying a comparative advantage over other nations. Advertisers are able directly to reach their customers and meet their individual needs (Johnson 2003). The problem in this one is on privacy issues. Some companies access consumer information without their consent, and use it in advertisements. Education to the consumers on privacy and security has been launched in lots of the states. While this is enhancing privacy, it is also the program that other countries with similar problems can adapt.
The increased campaigns all over the world against global warming are also a matter of great concern. Very many organizations have emerged strongly to oppose all industrial operations and activities that are not environmental friendly. The consumers in the whole of Europe have been sensitized on the same (Fitzgerald & Arnott 2000). Therefore, the consumers are very sensitive when it comes to buying of the various goods, and only prefer those that are eco-friendly. This has positively affected the advertisements since industries have to ensure that they portray products being safe environmentally. This is happening in all other parts of the world.
The state of the European economy in the past years has also been a challenge. The economy experienced some big crises between 2000 and 2002 that led to a down slump in all the marketing sectors. Stiff competition from other countries made it hard for the industry to pick (Johnson 2003). This together with the shifting media environment led to a sluggish growth in that area for some time. However, this has been overcome by the firm foundations and better strategies that ensure the stability of the economy. The economy is now one of the best in the world.
Cultural advertisement in Europe is definitely success. Despite the many challenges that face the industry, it has evolved through the hurdles to prove to be one of the leading in the world. There are quite a number of strategies which adapt and which can be emulated by other countries in the world. One of the strategies is the keeping of consistent workers (Johnson 2003). This has greatly helped in maintaining clients and good client relationships. Dismissing workers and changing the workforce contribute to loss of important clients.
Many of the companies in Europe have also not abandoned print in advertising. Though Internet has brought a lot of changes, the traditional print methods and the use of television is still common. Better infrastructures are required in order to be able to shift into the digital technology fully. This is particularly so in the developing countries. A research has shown that an advert seen on television repetitively lasts longer in the minds of the viewers. This might be so even after the product saturating at the market (Johnson 2003).
Expanding the advertisement market has also greatly improved the sector. The sector, being one of the best promotion tools, largely contributes to information flow and increases in sales. This requires more investment. Proper evaluation of the expenditures will also reduce financial losses and enhance more transparency. Proper auditing of the adverts before they are aired or printed will also ensure that their quality is high.
In recent past, there has been a move towards the global convergence of the consumption and entertainment habits. Europe has not been left behind in this and has largely implemented standardization in its production processes. This has led to the expansion of the market for its products. All these among other strategies, are some of the things that the world should learn and adapt from the European countries in order to improve not only in their advertisements but also in all their marketing strategies.
Individual perception, interpretation and understanding of world views depend greatly on cultural orientation. Another purpose of a persuasive advertisement is not only to convince consumers to purchase but also to transmit values and morals in the society
In the entire world, in general, some cultures, especially Western cultures have swallowed the smaller traditional cultures. The advances in technology, such as satellite reception for television from all over the world have totally eroded cultural boundaries. Multinationals that would want to invest in cultured markets need to do a lot of researches so that they can modify their advertisements to suit the target cultures.
For instance, if they want invest in a Muslim populated market, knowing that Muslims don’t eat pork, should avoid any visuals that are related to pigs. When a customer creates the need for a certain commodity, the company should focus on creating the culture of buying the product. After identifying the age bracket of the target group, companies need to focus on the cultures which are appealing to this age group. For instance, as the youths are the target groups for perfume companies, companies should, therefore, focus on cultures that are appealing to the youth and in most cases come up with a stylish product. So it is important for companies to realize the importance of cultural advertising. Although focusing on specific cultures may reduce the scope of the firm’s product, attention should be paid to the fact that the product will develop customer’s loyalty, thus high returns in the long run. Customers will always align themselves with products they can identify.
Success will be achieved by marketers who will take time to learn, understand and appreciate the different cultures of the various target customers. This also makes it easy for advertisers easily to create advertisements that appeal to the target customers. Africa at large, being a growing marketplace, presents a great investment opportunity both for nationals and multinationals. In addition, the growth of social media and mobile advertising makes it easier for companies to advertise their products. However, the companies need a well integrated marketing strategy to be able to penetrate this wide market. Firms that are connected to the consumers’ values are more likely to develop bonds between consumers and the products. Thus, culture is important and should not be ignored.