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Nursing care is a science about provision of some elementary medical and preventive actions, for example, injections, medical tests, pulse control and basic care for patients. Such a name is caused by the fact that nurses fulfill the above-mentioned procedures in hospitals or diagnostic centers. Quite often a staff nurse has to search for the data about illnesses in multivolume textbooks of medical practice notes.
Nursing is a social and energy-consuming process directed at medical competency and genuine care for people for revealing of the patient’s problems, connected with the qualified help and social maintenance of the general state of health. Certainly, the ultimate goal of nursing is to help the patient. At the same time, a nurse is the main executor of health-care process. A nurse is the eyes of the blind, a source of knowledge and confidence for young mother, lips of those who are too weak or immersed to speak. These words express the mission of a nurse. A nursing process provides the definite scheme of measures which are carried out by a nurse in relation to the patient for the purpose of prevention, relief and limitation of the arisen problems to a minimum.
Essence of Leadership
Leadership is being number one, leadership is producing excellence. (Avolio, 2005). Leadership is a process to direct the behavior of other people in order to achieve common goals. Leadership has to be given in the way that impacts people in order to achieve the results, thus showing high standards and quality of work. Effective leadership is one of the keys to the successful healthcare system as a whole. Moreover, leadership is important in providing competent nursing process in particular. Leaders, similar to that of products, have their own life cycle. It is inexpedient that the role of a leader was executed by one person throughout the whole period of work of an informal group or a team. In some situations it is not obligatory to have an active leader focused on the performance of tasks that employees have successfully coped with. There are leadership substitutes, characteristics of an individual, tasks or the organization, which allow achieving good results for the lack of leadership.
Leadership facilitates the accomplishment of the work and develops the employee; non-leadership accomplishes the work at the expense of the employee. A leader inspires the employee to do his/her best to accomplish the tasks at hand; a non-leader drives or pushes the employee along. (Garner, 2002).
The Concept of Attributive Leadership
The given concept is based on the theory of attribution, explaining relationship in terms of the cause and effect relationship. The cause-and-effect paradigm explains the difference between what has occurred and what people consider the cause of the occurred. The attributive approach to leadership recognizes that the conclusions of the leader, as well as the behavior of followers, are caused by the reaction of a leader to the behavior of the followers. It assumes that knowledge of the reasons, which have created a particular situation, strengthens leadership. It increases the understanding of the capability of people to predict the reaction to a situation. In most cases a leader does not have any possibility to observe the work of the subordinate directly. The given mode of attributive leadership has essential differences from the traditional models, which are unduly descriptive and in their majority do not answer the question “why”.
The Concept of Charismatic Leadership
There are two opposite perceptions of a leader’s image. One of them denies any influence of a leader on the organizational efficiency, and another one explains a leader’s charisma and attempts of the followers to attribute magic and divine qualities to a leader. Charisma is the form of influence on others by means of the personal appeal causing followers to support the leader. Charisma provides the possibility for the leader to exercise the power over followers. Being the source of leadership, power charisma concerns the power of an example. This concept explains the ability of a leader to influence his or her subordinates owing to the personal qualities and style of management. Charisma offers the advantages for the leader to make the impact on subordinates more effectively, as they develop trust. Some people consider charisma to be a set of specific personal qualities. The model of charismatic leadership differs by the means of two variables. One of the variables is the quantity of the stages of charisma development, and the second one is the quality of the relationship with the followers.
The Concept of Transformative Leadership
The concept of transformative or reformative leadership has a lot in common with the concept of charismatic leadership. A leader is a reformer, who motivates the followers by the increase of the level of their consciousness. The followers in turn experience the change in perception of importance and values of an object in view, granting the possibility to combine personal interests with an overall aim and to create a trusty atmosphere. Moreover, this concept is characteristic of the appearance of the followers’ belief in the necessity of self-development. The leader-reformer is a converter, instead of a savior. He shows creativity instead of magic. His background consists of realities instead of myths. Moreover, he leads the followers from a result to a result, instead of from a promise to a promise. Lastly, he shifts the focus of people on work instead of on dividends. The model of reformative or transformative leadership assumes the presence of certain behavior, suitable for the creative solution of a problem in a crisis situation, which is effective at the leader and his followers.
Nursing leadership is an integral component of the advanced generalist master’s prepared nurse. Being the element of social interactions, nursing leadership is a complex activity including:
1. The process of influence;
2. Participants - both leaders and followers;
3. A number of the possible results - not only the goals achievement, but also adherence of people to these purposes, improvement of interactions in a team, and change of a corporate culture.
Modern nursing leaders understand that it is necessary to share a part of control to get results, in other words, they act as instructors, not as bosses. Effective nursing leaders possess a thoroughly structured system of the ideas, based on knowledge and values, formulated by a leader in such a manner, which ccan be perceived by the followers completely and without difficulties. Moreover, training of new nursing leaders in such organizations becomes a part of a corporate culture that “the nursing leadership engine” turns on. Effective nursing leadership and the system of successful motivation are included into an administrative ability to define the correct purposes for the personnel for the goal-achievement. Moreover, it is important to realize the acceptance of the responsibility to achieve the set goals. When a nursing leader is successful, he will learn to reveal basic desires and requirements of the personnel; he can operate properly and motivate the team to work effectively.
Team Building in Nursing
Leadership is necessary in team building, for transformation of a group of people into a force which creates a steady competitive advantage. Leaders know how to motivate people to work together, how to encourage them for showing the best results. Leaders also know how to balance individual aspirations of team members for the purpose of synergy - the result which greatly exceeds the sum of the individual contributions. Leaders direct team members to coordinate the aspiration to the achievement of the best individual results by common efforts of a team. Effective communication plays a vital role in the nursing leadership. Timely communication in nursing helps to foresee problems, make decisions, coordinate work of nursing personnel, develop relations, create knowledge and ideas, establish an accurate vision of the future and motivate employees.
In leadership, loners are losers. Leaders who cling to the old idea of know-all-tell-all leadership style can’t move their organizations forward in this modern time. Leadership used to be one-man command-and-control practice - but no more. (Kumuyi, 2007).
In June 2000, the Second Conference under the aegis of the World Health Organization took place in Munich (Germany). Its major goal was aimed at the strengthening of the nursing teams. Nursing teams are very important for management, recruitment and appointment of personnel, and maintenance of qualitative services. The main directions of nursing teams’ activities are the following ones:
- To strengthen efforts on granting of a high-quality medical aid to patients, on the basis of scientific and clinical proofs, patients’ satisfaction, and efficiency of expenses;
- To develop plans and tools for health improvement of the world population according to the contribution of nurses and midwifes;
- To develop mechanisms necessary for monitoring and estimating of the quality of the rendered services.
Summing up the paper, I would like to say that nursing staff should correspond to a greater degree to the needs of people, instead of to the requirements of a health care system. They should be transformed to a well-educated leader, an equal partner, to work independently with people, promoting the strengthening of a society’s health. A correct nursing leadership plays a very important role in a successful healthcare practice. Leadership is one of the key functions of a nurse. Moreover, in order to become a successful nursing leader, it is necessary to possess the leader’s qualities and to cultivate them.
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