Table of Contents
1. The Cold War
The Cold War was the global geopolitical, military, economic, and ideological confrontation during 1946–1989 between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War was not the war in an international legal sense. One of the main components of the confrontation was the ideological struggle that appeared as a consequence of the contradiction between the capitalist and communist models of the political systems. The Cold War made a great impact on US society, culture, politics, and economics, inciting hatred towards communism and the Soviet Union.
The internal logic of confrontation required the participation of the parties in the conflict and their intervention in the development of events in any part of the world. The USA and the USSR struggled mainly for the dominance in the political sphere. The United States and the Soviet Union established their spheres of influence, securing their military-political blocs such as NATO and the Warsaw Pact. The Cold War was born in the crucible of WWII (the second half of 1943–April 1945). The impact of the Cold War on American society was determined by the three main factors. Firstly, every American began to realize a continuous fear of war that had raised the arms race. Secondly, American citizens felt hatred towards the Soviet Union and its people. A strong anti-communist movement was spread all over the United States and everybody saw a soviet citizen as a direct threat. Lastly, American people were affected economically because of the increase in the amount of taxes. Thus, Americans had to pay for the government politics and its wars such as the Vietnam War.
Every American realized the impact of the Cold War on American society, economy, and politics. The war was based on two opposite ideologies that led to a global conflict. The United States of America expanded the number of military bases and drastically reduced the trade relations with the Soviet Union and its supporters. The attitude of the Soviet Union towards the West could be described as the “Iron Curtain,” which was a policy of confrontation (warfare) that resulted in the arms race. The Cold War was characterized by hostile acts from both sides. It was evident in 1947 when the United States proposed a Marshall Plan. This plan called for the provision of economic aid to European countries affected by the war, depending on their political orientation.
The period of the Cold War was the beginning of the creation of military blocs such as NATO (1949). Among the first acts of the Cold War was the Berlin crisis in 1948 that stimulated the division of Germany and the Korean War of 1950 – 1953. The U.S. was ready to use nuclear weapons in Korea, but this requirement was rejected by Truman. In 1952, the Republicans won the elections and Eisenhower Administration limited the state intervention in the economy in 1953, abolished wage and price controls, eliminated Reconstruction Finance Corporation, cut taxes on corporate and personal income. In the following years, there was widespread road building and housing construction. There was even an extended unit of social assistance. The minimum wage rose from 75 cents to 1 dollar.
The United States was involved in the Vietnam and Korean wars with the aim of stopping the communist expansion. The Korean and Vietnam Wars are important examples of US military intervention to stop communist expansionism. The USA organized a large-scale “information war” and made considerable efforts to internationally isolate Guatemala that was considered to be pro-Soviet. On October 14, 1953, the USA Department of State issued an official statement condemning the activities of the government of Guatemala. The long-term result of these actions was the civil war in Guatemala that had lasted for 36 years, claimed the lives of 200,000 civilians, and spread to neighboring countries. The USA made the similar impact on Korea, Iran, Vietnam, and Nicaragua, imposing economic sanctions against them.
1. Tet Offensive was the biggest military campaign of surprise attacks in the Vietnam War. 2. Mujahid is not only a warrior but also any Muslim whose struggle fits into the framework of jihad. 3. David Stockman is the former head of the Department of Management and Budget under President Ronald Reagan, an experienced financier and author of the bestseller The Great Strain. 4. Throughout his career, Henry Kissinger tried to apply the theoretical principles of classical realism for the sake of what he regarded as the global balance of power. 5. Ba'ath Party is the Arab socialist political party in Syria that was founded by Michel Aflaq.
The Cold War was a sad episode in American history that increased the arms race and military conflicts between the U.S., Soviet Union, and countries that supported the communist regime. American citizens also suffered from the consequences of that war because they lived in fear facing the danger of a new war. The long-term results of these actions influenced numerous countries such as Korea, Vietnam etc.
2. September 11, 2001
The September 11, 2011 terrorist attacks threatened not only the USA but also the entire mankind. The world history has never seen such a tragedy in the center of the USA. Due to these horrible events, the government introduced a new policy aimed at destroying the world’s terrorist organizations. Because of that, the great amounts of innocent people were killed in different Muslim countries. The September 11 attacks gave rise to new ideology and attitudes toward various events and people.
On September 11, 2001, suicide bombers of the terrorist organization Al Qaeda hijacked four passenger planes, sending two of them to the World Trade Center towers in New York and the other two to the Pentagon and, presumably, to the White House or the Capitol. In the morning of September 11, four aircraft “Boeing” were hijacked by nineteen Arab terrorists.