- Without proper precautions, early childhood settings can be prone to the spread of infectious diseases. Review the information in your text on the transmission of infectious diseases. Briefly explain the four ways infectious diseases can be spread, giving an example of each. Then identify sanitary practices that can prevent the spread of illnesses for each of these four methods of transmission.
Infectious diseases can be spread in various ways which includes: 1. Bacteria(person to person)- this may happen when one sneezes or coughs without covering their mouth, bacteria in the tiny droplets of moisture passes out and contaminates the air around, for example colds and tuberculosis. 2. Through food and water- food can carry bacteria such as salmonella and E-coli, water borne diseases arise when there is a shortage of water or water is dirty. Examples of these diseases are diarrhea which is responsible for more deaths in children. 3. Fungi- fungi surrounds the environment and can cause diseases like fungi and athlete’s foot... 4.Parasites-diseases can be spread through insect (carrier) bites. When an insect bites a human it spits out the virus or protozoa that it carries in its saliva fro exchange of blood, for example every a child dies every 30 seconds from malaria. Mayo staff says “These carriers are known as vectors”
To prevent the spread of these infectious diseases, people have to cover their mouths when they sneeze. If the flu/ cold seems severe it is best to seek medical attention. Washing fruits and vegetables under chlorinated running water may also improve conditions and drinking water must be boiled. Spraying the area with insecticides can help reduce the insects and hence prevent the spread of diseases.
- Review your course text readings on role modelling, especially pages 392-396, and explain why adults should model good health behaviors for children. Describe three different health behaviors you might model for children and their families. For each, describe at least one step you could take to help children, and possibly their families, adopt these behaviors.
Human behavior plays a big role in the health sector. Health Belief Model introduces healthy ways for families to improve the way they eat. A behavior change model can be introduced to help a family. One step to ensure this model will be effective is to introduce fun, nutritious as well as filling balanced diets.2. Theory of reasoned action-Bandura states that –self regulation is a concept that derives from cognitive social learning theory. The attitude that people display towards something determines their habits thus a step in making this happen will be to give these families self-help materials.
3. Social Action theory helps individuals strike a balance between psychological and social aspects. Creation of healthy environments that are conducive for self-protective choices. This model helps adolescents and their families to eat together and monitor each other’s eating habits.
- Early childhood professionals are not expected to diagnose serious illnesses; however, they should be able to identify symptoms that may indicate infectious diseases common in young children. Imagine, for example, that a 3 year old arrives in school with a runny nose. The mucus is clear and he has no other obvious symptoms, except for a slight cough. Because his symptoms are mild, the teacher decides to allow him to stay at school but she continues to watch him closely throughout the day, to see whether his conditions worsens. Review tables 12-1 to 12-4 (pp 464-471) in your text and identify possible illnesses this child might have. Describe the symptoms you would look for if you were his teacher. Under what conditions would you contact a family member and/ or emergency medical personnel?
A runny nose may be a symptom of cold, influenza, allergies to dust, pollen or pet dander or even a response to irritants. The child just has a runny nose and a cough thus this cannot be called a serious disease. For the day, as a teacher I will keep the child but prevent him from coming to school the next day as this might allow him to spread the disease to his classmates.
If the child’s coughing becomes serous and goes into spasms, I will call for medical attention immediately and then contact his family. The medical personnel will be likely to check the child’s throat and ears to see whether the child has any bacterial infection.
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