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The cases of patients with diabetes in the United Kingdom would be critically analyzed and explored in this research paper. With the advent of technological devices such as television, computer and other gadgets, the number of hours in performing physical activities has lessened tremendously. This has led to the growing rate of people with diseases in the past few years that include diabetes.
Apparently, the unhealthy lifestyle in general and the improper dieting have also contributed to the worsening of health condition of the people in the United Kingdom. In addition, the government has yet to respond with the appropriate policy or program that would address the said issue. As the number of cases increases, the complications of people with such disease continue to spread, as one of the studies suggested.
The more unfortunate part of the issue is that the victims of diabetes are getting younger every year. Though diabetes has been speculated to occur among 25 years old above, the younger generation has also been affected due to the unhealthy habits and improper dieting. It would seem that the lifestyle of the adult population has influenced the younger ones which resulted to the increase diabetes cases under the said sector. In relation, this is a proposed research in enlightening some of the prevailing issues about diabetes cases in the UK.
LO1. Understand how to formulate a research specification
1.1 Formulate and record possible research project outline specifications
In order to accomplish the proposed study about the increasing rate of diabetes cases among young ones in the UK, a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies would be conducted. A quantitative approach is suitable for the investigation in order to have an accurate and profound macro-overview or of the diabetes cases in the UK. For this, survey questionnaires would be distributed to the respondents with diabetes. Four to five hospitals would be selected to obtain the respondents with diabetes. The content of the questionnaire would evolve around the perception of the respondents about their diabetes condition, its causes, impacts to their lifestyles, and others. This would provide an overview of the diabetes case from the point of view of the respondents.
The independent variables would be age, gender, ethnic race, occupation, and educational background. The researcher would particularly select respondents aging from 25 years below because the topic is about ascertaining the diabetes case of said age category. In every selected hospital, the list of patients with diabetes would be requested from the hospital administrators. Through the said list, patients aging from 25 years old below would be chosen to answer the survey questionnaire. However, 50% of the total population of patients with diabetes under the said age range would be selected. The respondents would be randomly selected by putting their names on a bowl. This would determine the prevailing lifestyle patterns including dieting of the respondents that led to the acquisition of a diabetes.
In addition, a quantitative approach would also require the researcher to obtain statistical information about the patients with diabetes in the selected hospitals. If possible, the statistical accounts of the medical records of the patients would be requested from the hospital administrators. Statistical data such as length of stay in the hospital, the number of hours for consultation, the progress report of the patients, and other relevant medical records would be requested as part of the quantitative approach. This would support the perception of the respondents about the diabetes condition.
In terms of the qualitative approach, the researcher would conduct an in-depth interview with the top officials of the selected hospitals and relevant government agencies about the diabetes cases in the UK. Hospital administrators or medical experts specializing in handling the cases of diabetes in the chosen hospitals would be selected for an in-depth interview. One for each hospital and one in a government agency who is involved in diabetes cases would be interviewed. The point of views of these experts would contribute greatly in obtaining a critical account of the increase in diabetes cases among young ones in the UK. They would particularly answer the questions about the preventive measures and how the government should respond to mitigate the cases of diabetes in the said country.
The researcher intends to examine the data systematically by using statistical tool in computing the responses in the survey questionnaires. The mean, median, mode and the standard deviation would be used in the calculation of the responses. The initial stage in the data analysis is the segregation of the responses of the patients in terms of gender, age, ethnic background, and other variables. The responses would be categorized based on the topics of the survey questionnaires.
In the gathering of the necessary data, some ethical implications would be considered. The first consideration is the privacy and confidentiality issues that relate to the respondents’ medical and personal information. The researcher would earnestly protect and respect the confidential information of the respondents by keeping them safe in a storage disk. In addition, the identities of the respondents would not be divulged in the research but only the essential information that relates to the conduct of research. Of course, if a respondent doesn’t want to divulge any personal information, the researcher would respect it. More importantly, the information about the respondents would be obtained without their consents. Informed consent is a right that would be upholded in the gathering of the needed information about the study.
The survey questionnaire would include questions about the daily routines and the usual food taken by the respondents, the number of hours watching TV, performing physical activities or exercises and the like. Other sensitive issues would not be intruded by the researcher in conducting the study.
In the completion of the study, the researcher would require certain assistance from five interviewers who will distribute the questionnaires to the target population. In addition, a statistician is also necessary to manage the quantitative aspect of the research particularly the result computation of the result of the survey questionnaire. These personnel are necessary in gathering and analysis of the statistical data.
1.2 Identify the factors that contribute to the process of research project selection
There are many factors that would contribute to the process of the proposed project selection. One of the factors is the prevailing statistics about the diabetes cases in the UK and other countries, which is quite alarming. This is because the data has been increasing every year, which means that the appropriate government agencies have to do something immediately to resolve the said health issue. This prompted the researcher to propose a research study that would provide accurate and reliable information that would shed light about the issue at hand.
Another factor that contributed to the selection of the topic was the available data in the health care organizations and the Internet that can be used for extensive analysis. Data are already proliferated in the concerned agencies and the Internet that would help in the analysis of the topic to be investigated.
Moreover, the researcher is highly concerned with the victims of such disease especially the young ones. Diabetes can certainly affect the lifestyle of the victims such as the children, which may be avoided through a systematic approach. This can be achieved by accomplishing the proposed research.
1.3 undertake a critical review of key references
The references that would be utilized for the proposed research about diabetes are quite reliable. The chosen references are updated and contain substantial information about the diabetes cases. For instance, the article posted by the Diabetes.org.uk (2013) entitled,” State of the Nation 2012,” has provided statistical data about the diabetes cases in the recent years including 2012, which is really updated. It also gives a critical analysis of the possible causes and impacts of the said illness to the patients.
The article posted by Kanavos, P. et al. (2012) entitled,” Diabetes expenditure, burden of disease and management in 5 EU countries,” is also helpful because it includes a profound analysis of the macro impacts of the increasing diabetes cases in the European region including UK. The authors have examined the adverse effects of such health issue in the economy of the five European countries. This article contributed to the analysis of the broader perspective about the health issue.
On the other hand, the News BBC (2009) entitled,” Rates of diabetes soar in the UK,’ has critically dissected the sectors that have acquired diabetes in the UK. It speculated that the number of young ones who have diabetes are steadily increasing every year. This contributes greatly in the pursuit of knowing the causes of the increase.
1.4 Produce a research project specification
In accomplishing the proposed study, specifications would include the types or research techniques, which would be qualitative and quantitative. Along with the types of methodology, the tools for gathering primary data specifically survey questionnaires and interviews would also be included. The statistical techniques to be employed are standard deviation, mode, mean, and median.
Of course, the aims and objectives, rationale for selection, literature review, hypothesis and research questions would also be essential parts of the specifications. This part of the proposal is quite important because it lays the foundation of the proposed study. It provides explanation on the importance of conducting a research about the said health issue.
1.5 Provide an appropriate plan and procedures for the agreed research specification
The initial stage in conducting the proposed study about diabetes is searching for the reference materials. The selected materials such as the ones mentioned above would be summarized and be included in the review of related literature. The point of views of the authors of the reference materials including the statistics would serve as relevant studies in understanding the problem at hand.
Formulation of the clear research questions would be the next stage. This is because only after a thorough review of the literatures that one can possibly formulate clear research questions. The other parts of Chapter 1 such as the rationale, objectives, and hypothesis would come next after the formulation of the statement of the problem.
Chapter 2, which is the review of related literature would be the next stage. The researcher would now write the explanations and statistics coming from the reference materials in relation to the statement of the problem. A thorough understanding of the sources would be conducted in order to come up with insights that would aid in analyzing the topic to be investigated.
The next stage would be selecting the hospitals for the target respondents. In this case, the researcher would search within the vicinity for hospitals with high cases of young patients with diabetes. The top four hospitals would be the selected for the respondents. The researcher would then write a letter of permission to the administrators of the hospitals to conduct the proposed study. If given permission, the list of patients would be requested so that the target respondents would be taken from the said list.
The survey questionnaires would be then be distributed to the chosen respondents. Aside from the survey questionnaires, an in-depth interview would be done with at least one hospital administrator for every hospital chosen. Lastly, the collation of the data would be next stage. The data would be critically analyzed for an accurate presentation.
LO2: Be able to implement the research project within agreed procedures and to specification
2.1Match resources efficiently to the research question or hypothesis
In relation to the research questions, the gathered information from the relevant studies could prove that the unhealthy lifestyle and poor dieting of the young ones are the major causes of the increase rate of diabetes cases in the UK. Effective detection measures at an early age are means to manage the said health issue. This is because those who have higher risks to acquire the diabetes may still be prevented given the appropriate detection treatment. Evidently, there is an approximately half-million people in the UK might already have it but are still unaware of their health condition. Presently, the diabetes cases have reached 2.5 million people in the UK while half a million people who are unaware that they have it (BBC News, 2009).
On a deeper analysis of the said health issue in the UK, though medical experts suggest that type 2 diabetes may normally occur among people over 25 and before 40 years of age, there is an increasing number of children that are diagnosed with the said health condition. This would imply that the causes of diabetes are getting younger as the years go by. This claim is more alarming than adults acquiring diabetes. Consequently, the lifestyle and dieting of the younger population in the UK have to be checked (BBC News, 2009).
In dissecting the composition of the population in the UK that has diabetes, it would be observable that men have the highest rate in acquiring the disease, with 15% among those in the age group of 55-74. As compared with men, only 10.4% of women in the same age group have the disease. In terms of age, the percentage is steadily increasing with .8% among adolescents aging from 16-24 in the 2010 survey in the UK. It was emphasized in the said study that the trend among young ones has been increasing constantly since 2001, which is quite disturbing (Diabetes.org.uk, 2012).
To further clarify the data above, a significant percentage of children with diabetes in the UK have type 1 diabetes, one per 700-1000 people. As an overall account, the population of people with type 1 diabetes who are below 25 years old is 25,000. This would imply that in every community, it would be expected that there would emerge a number of 100 to 150 children with diabetes. Moreover, symptoms seem to appear from 10 to 14 years of age (Diabetes.org.uk, 2012).
2.2 Undertake the proposed research investigation in accordance with the agreed specification and procedures
The approach is from specific to the general analysis. With this, the researcher would first gather the data among the direct sources of information, the patients with diabetes. Their responses are quite reliable because they are the main stakeholders of the information about diabetes. From this, the accounts of the experts would contribute in completely comprehending the topic at hand. The hospital administrators would provide the broader perspective about the issue that would make the research more reliable.
2.3 Record and collate relevant data where appropriate
Modernity certainly plays a major factor in the increase of rate of diabetes cases in the UK. It was noted by Murray et al (2011) in their study that the lifestyle of the UK residents has been a major source of the augmentation of cases with diabetes especially type 2 in the past decades. For one thing, the lack of physical activity and the unhealthy dieting are two of the fundamental causes of the said health issue in the said country due to devotion of people to modern devices such as television and computer.
It has been proven that long periods of physical inactivity have contributed significantly in the acquisition of diabetes. Specifically, people who tend to sit most of the time have the high risk of getting diabetes and heart disease that may lead to death, as the study suggests. Other habits that may contribute in gaining diabetes and other illnesses are watching TV, sitting in a car, or using a computer and any gadgets. These are the implications that emanate from a modern lifestyle, which highly characterized the UK society (Murray, et al, 2011).
As mentioned in a study in 2010, most people in the said country spend an approximate of 14 hours per week watching TV and sitting for three hours per day. Although there is no clear limit on how much physical activity that is needed in order to have a healthy lifestyle, the identified number of hours of physical inactivity in the said study are already considered harmful to one’s health, as emphasized by the researchers (Murray, et al, 2011).
In analyzing closely the said claim, it has been illuminated that those who spent most of their time sitting had the highest risk of having diabetes or heart disease as compared to those who spent less time in a sitting. For those who have such habits, experts recommend to go to a gym in order to achieve a better health condition. It was also speculated that those who exercise for 30 minutes in a day but sit a lot in the remaining 23.5 hours still have a high chance of getting diabetes (Murray, et al, 2011).
Indeed, the said study has established the connection of sitting for long hours in a day to the risk of getting diabetes. This is because one of the effects of physical inactivity that leads to a diabetic condition is that decrease in the level of glucose in the body and the increase resistance to insulin (Murray, et al, 2011).
LO3. Be able to evaluate the research outcomes
3.1 Use appropriate research evaluation techniques
The research outcomes would be validated through other researches in the same field. It would be compared with results of other studies in the same topic in order to determine whether they are valid or not. Moreover, the research outcomes can also be validated through the statistics that are being posted in the Internet and journal articles that are relevant to diabetes.
A comparison with the studies conducted in other countries would also be useful in ascertaining the validity of the outcomes of the study. For instance, Kanavos et al. (2012) have accounted that in the past two decades, the rates of diabetes have increased constantly, not only in the UK, but also in four other countries in Europe. It was also stressed by the authors that the diabetes cases had concrete connections with obesity, aging population, and unhealthy lifestyles of people in the mentioned European countries .
For that matter, Germany has a 8.9% rate of prevalence, which has been rated as the highest among the five European countries. Spain’s rate (8.1%) followed Germany, then France (6.4%), the UK (6.1%) and, finally, Italy (4.8%). It is noticeable that the UK ranks only fourth in the registered cases with diabetes. This is despite the fact that the UK is the only country among the five that has concrete screening programs in detecting diabetes cases. So, the four other countries may still have more cases with diabetes that are not registered at the time of the study (Kanavos, et al, 2012).
3.2 Interpret and analyse the results in terms of the original research specification
In offering an analysis in relation to the results, the causes of such trend among the younger population of the UK are interestingly similar with those of the adults. The time spent for video gaming, surfing in the Internet, playing with gadgets, and other habits that are connected to modern technology are among the identified causes. The unhealthy eating habits of children are also significant in the increase in the cases with diabetes in the said age category.
It was also found out that diabetes and obesity are concretely linked with each other. Incidentally, the rate of diabetes has been directly linked to an increasing rate of obesity in the UK. Although there is a high risk of acquiring type 2 diabetes among people who are obese, it was found out by the Diabetes UK that 80% of people with such a disease are not overweight.
As a proof of the link between diabetes and obesity problems, it was proposed that the lost of weight can actually decrease the chance of having type 2 diabetes by 58%. With this, it is very essential that the level of awareness among the people that pertain to a healthy lifestyle and balanced diet ought to be increased. In addition, 30 minutes of physical activity per day are also suggested to address the issue of obesity and diabetes.
Moreover, the effects of diabetes are not merely on the personal level or the individual per se. Without properly managing the cases on a macro level, this would further result to the adverse impacts into the economy. Kanavos and his colleagues (2012) analyzed that the growing cases of diabetes in the European countries had tremendous impacts on their economies. The financial effects are quite enormous that the governments of the European nations would have to formulate concrete policy or programs to address the said health issue.
3.3 Make recommendations
Prevention and intervention programs have been recommended in managing the diabetes cases. As mentioned, people should have exercise more and have to devote most of their time in performing various physical activities. Indeed, solving the issue would require drastic change in the lifestyle of people in the UK. They have to lessen their number of hours in front of the TV or computer and more time on physical exercise. Choosing the right food is, of course, a given fact that would reduce the risk of obtaining diabetes.
More importantly, the government has to formulate programs that would address the increasing trend in diabetes cases. Intervention programs such as mentioned above would be helpful in comforting the patients with diabetes. In addition, the health care professionals can do their share by influencing the belief of the patients about their health condition through proper dissemination of accurate information about the disease.
LO4: Be able to present the research outcomes
4.1 Use an agreed format and appropriate media to present the outcomes of the research to an audience
The outcomes of the research would be presented through a PowerPoint Presentation. The major points raised by the research would be presented in a bulleted manner and to be explained to the audience. A video presentation about the cases of diabetes in the UK would also be conducted to support the PowerPoint Presentation. In doing so, an effective visual presentation through the combination of the mentioned resources would facilitate in explaining the topic at hand to the audience.
This paper concludes that diabetes is certainly a serious issue in the UK. The statistics presented above especially the cases among children would only prove that it may become worse if the trend would continue. As a fact, the cases no longer include people aging from 25 years old and above. The rate of young ones with diabetes in the UK has also been increasing steadily in the past few years. This is quite alarming since it has been stressed by medical experts that untreated diabetes would lead to other complications and deaths.
The facts analyzed here have shed light to the causes of the trend that led to the formulation of effective prevention techniques. Without a doubt, one of the causes of the high risk of getting diabetes is the lack of physical activity. The long hours of physical inactivity would certainly lead to the acquisition of diabetes, as proven in the UK. Another major that has been ascertained is the poor dieting, which contributes to an unhealthy lifestyle. This has been aggravated by the inadequacy of the government programs in addressing the issue. Though, it has been speculated that the UK has greatly funded the programs in dealing with diabetes cases, it seems not enough in totally solving the issue.
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