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Diabetes Mellitus

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Diabetes or Diabetes mellitus is a disease that attracts high blood sugar due to a group of metabolic diseases that cause faultiness of the pancreas that causes a low production of insulin, or when the pancreas produces insulin but the cells do not respond to it. Classical symptoms, which come together with high blood sugar, are frequent urination, hunger, and thirst (Shrikhande, 2012). There are three main types of diabetes, namely:

A) Type1;  In this type of diabetes the body fails to produce insulin, which leads to the necessity to inject insulin, when the body requires it. Another option for the person is to wear an insulin pump. This form of diabetes is referred to as insulin dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, because the young people, under the age of 40, are the ones, who are mainly affected by IDD;

B) Type2; This type results from the cells, which do not properly utilize the insulin that is produced. The cells become insulin-resistant or they are in a condition that they are not using the insulin in a proper way. This form of diabetes is known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. This form of diabetes is most common and affects people over the age of 40.

C) Gestational; This type of diabetes occurs in pregnant women, who develop a high blood glucose level. This type of diabetes may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes as well (Katsilambros et al., 2011).

Causes of diabetes

Despite the amount of research done to find the causes of diabetes, there are no exact reasons for it. For example, the causes of type 1 diabetes were inherited then later triggered by various life situations or bodily infections. Type 2 diabetes is brought by due to the life style of an individual and genetics (Shrikhande, 2012).

In most cases, diabetes is hereditary, i.e. if a family member has diabetes, maybe parents or siblings, then there is a high chance that it will be transmitted further. Sometimes diabetes develops as a result of a disturbance in life, such as bereavement, heart attack, or even a severe accident. In this case,  bad shock that comes with the disturbance is the one that triggers the diabetes a bit earlier if the supply of insulin in the body was already running low (Katsilambros, 2012). Pancreatitis is an extremely painful and highly unpleasant illness that attacks the pancreas. When the pancreas is severely damaged, it might not be able to produce enough insulin; sometimes that is when diabetes takes the advantage and starts developing after the attack of the pancreatitis.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of diabetes is at times problematic, because the symptoms do not appear until the pancreas completely stops the manufacturing of insulin. At this point, there is severe vomiting, tiredness, excessive peeing, weight loss, and skin infection among others. Such symptoms would be mistaken for a stomach virus, but a basic blood test showing decreased blood sugar levels would indicate the presence of diabetes type 1 (Katsilambros, 2012). There are several other tests to diagnose diabetes 1; nonetheless, they all test the levels of insulin hormone and levels of glucose in the blood.

Treatment of Diabetes

Most people, who suffer from diabetes, and especially parents of the children, who have diabetes, pray for a miraculous cure that will make the disease go away. The Type 1 diabetes can be treated with insulin only. Our bodies require energy from the food and the drinks we take in order to function properly. Extra energy might be needed for the additional activities, such as walking, housework, etc. To maintain a stable weight, the energy intake from the food we take should be equal to the energy output from the daily activities we do. If the weight of the body is increasing and the energy intake is exceeding the energy output, the extra energy is accumulated and stored as body fat. So keeping a record of the way you consume the food and drinks is vital in helping to identify the places, where the changes can be made, as the whole idea would be to reduce the intake of food, or to increase the level of activity, or even both (Mertig, 2012). The type of meal and the quantity that is consumed are vital in the treatment of diabetes. It is extremely important to have a close look of what you are going to do about your diet. It is advisable to look for the new ideas and recipes for meals for people with diabetes.

Frederick Grant Banting and his workmate, Charles Herbert Best, were the two medical scientists, who discovered insulin back in 1921. The two scientists discovered a way to easily manufacture human insulin and make it easily available for humans suffering from diabetes. Before, when insulin could only be obtained from the pancreas of pigs and cows, many humans died, as this was a very expensive way of obtaining the necessary treatment (Mertig, 2012). Therefore, after the discovery of human insulin through bacteria, the humans, no matter rich or poor, got a chance to obtain the treatment. This has been a significant breakthrough, as it has saved thousands of lives throughout the medical history. Without insulin, the body is unable to convert glucose to glycogen and store it in the body as triglycerides. In this case, the body cannot store fats and starch for later use; thus, the level of glucose in the body, when required, is inadequate. Insulin is, therefore, very important to sustain lives in human beings. For those, suffering from the diabetes type 1, an injection of insulin is required at least once a day, as this peptide hormone lasts only for a few hours until another shot is required.

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