For thousands of years, people have lived in harmony with the nature without brining any dramatic damages to it. However, the beginning of the technological era has resulted in a serious shift in people-nature relations. The improvement of living conditions in many countries determined people’s desire to be surrounded by goods made of qualified natural materials. Thoughtless consumerism of people from developed countries has already brought irreversible damage to the entire environment. One of the most serious consequences for the nature and humanity is deforestation. Since deforestation over the planet continues to affect climate and the wild life, its main consequences now and in the future should be considered more closely to support the prohibition of thoughtless cutting of trees.
The main reasons why deforestation should be prohibited in all countries are animal species habitat destruction, soil erosion increase, as well as increase of carbon dioxide and oxygen decrease in the atmosphere. Nature has created forests for keeping the environmental balance as without sufficient quantities of standing timber ecosystems experience negative conditions.
Deforestation leads to destruction of many animal species habitat, which results in species extinction. Forests are the only suitable habitat for numerous flora and fauna species; in fact, 80 percent of species reside in tropical rainforests (“Deforestation”). The reason of such a negative situation lies in the inability of many species to acclimate to a new surrounding condition opposite to their natural one (“Effects of Deforestation”). For example, forest predators face difficulty in hunting because other animals that are their prey can escape the attack more easily. Being unable to find food in their damaged natural environment, predators may come dangerously close to populated area and assail people. All living organisms in a closed biosystem cooperate with each other in a naturally designed perfect balance, in terms of which, one species controls population of the weaker or smaller ones, and, at the same time, provides other species with nutrients.
Forests must be legally protected because they provide many forms of living organisms with vital for their survival water and food as well as with natural shelter. Despite the fact that felled timber can be immediately replaced with small poles, it cannot prevent dramatic losses because young trees require years to grow to the needed size, while the majority of living organisms cannot live without constant nutrition. Therefore, deforestation brings damage to the entire ecosystem of the planet in few ways, which makes the damage typically irreversible.
Deforestation also brings a serious damage to the fertile soil layer. Trees, especially the ones with developed root system, protect soil from erosion. Plants in big amount protect soil from excessive water content; however, they also play a significant role in keeping required amount of water within the soil (“Deforestation”). In fact, forests serve as a naturally designed barrier that prevents soil from being washed away by the water flow. Root system in the forest lands absorbs water from the soil without any threat of dehydration. Plant offshoots and leaves serve as a protective layer from the sun heat that is responsible for soil evaporation. In fact, deforestation results in desertification of the area as without a natural water and nutrient supplier a waste ground gradually transforms into desert. Moreover, water absorbed by trees is partially released into the atmosphere as vapor, which is an important part in the general water cycle shaping climate conditions.
Because of deforestation, animal species abandon the area, which also has a negative impact on land capacity. Life cycles of animal and plant species nourish soil with their waste products, such as manure, and with their spoils. In order to be considered as fertile, soil requires suitable balance between ecosystem elements to keep it in a proper condition. Even partial deforestation of an area brings a serious damage to the fertile soil layer that is very difficult to restore without such tending as scheduled irrigation and fertilization. Therefore, the absence of trees may result in increased flooding and desertification of soil, which makes it unusable. Such lands cannot be used for farming and need decades for getting back to the original condition.
The most dramatic impact deforestation has on the environment is carbon dioxide increase and oxygen decrease accordingly. Global warming was conditioned by human activity since the beginning of the technological era. On the other hand, forests have always been a neutralizer of the consequences because plants absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. Without the required amount of plants in forests more greenhouse gases remain in the planet’s atmosphere, causing climate changes (Casper 104). Nearly every living creature needs oxygen for existing but with continuing deforestation and growing consuming demands of people, in the near future, the planet may face a severe oxygen shortage with highly negative consequences to the entire environment.
Taking into account all mentioned above, it can be said that despite the fact that people need timber to satisfy their consuming demands, deforestation must be strictly prohibited in every country. By cutting forests, people bring damage to the nature and to themselves. Lack of fertile soil layers, wild life, and oxygen are only few of all the negative consequences deforestation causes. Today, people already have enough natural material for recycling and proper conditions for making new high quality materials, such as plastic, to end thoughtless deforestation all over the planet. In cases when cutting trees is permitted, all actions must be in accordance with the law and each territory of newly destructed forest must count a small area and every cut tree unit must be shortly replaced with at least one young tree. Severe deforestation has already caused irreversible damage to the environment and because of it people must turn their policy from destroying forests to creating new ones.