Human resource management can be defined as the functions in a firm or an organization which is concerned with recruitment, management, and provision of direction to all the workers in the organization. It deals with all people issues including hiring, compensation, safety wellness, organizational development, training, benefits, employee motivation, and administration (Dessler 2000).
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It is a comprehensive and strategic approach that is used in managing workers at the workplace. Human resource is particularly effective, as it enables and makes employees be productive and work towards the achievement of the firm’s goals and objectives. Human resource management adds value to the utilization of employees at the workplace. The new emerging roles of human resource management are different from the traditional ones which involved transactional roles. Their new roles involve human resource measurements and metrics and strategic direction so that value can be demonstrated (Mondy & Gowan 2005).
Human resource management involves management of people in a form of collective relationship where it seeks to foster good relationship between the employees and the management. It is an approach that is focused on the outcomes and objectives of the function of the human resource management (Fisher & Shaw 1990). Currently, human resource management aims to fulfill the mandate by managing, providing and deploying a workforce with great emphasis on monitoring, planning, and control.
The role of human resource management can be said to be that of people working in an organization. This explains the reason why sometimes Human Resource Managers are called People Enablers or People Managers (Fisher & Shaw 1990). It is the responsibility of the Human Resource Manager to control the expectations of the employees and ensure that the objectives of the management can be realized and the fulfillment of the employees is provided. Human resource Managers need to be specialists, since they are in charge of the important components within the organization. Their job in the organization is to fuse together the needs of the firm with the demands of the employees within the organization (Fisher & Shaw 1990).
Nature of Human Resource Management
It can be said that the Human Resource Management aims at improving the relationship between the employees within the organization and the organization management. It is to ensure that both their goals and objectives can be met. As such, the nature of Human Resource Management needs to involve the broader function of comprehensive roles, since it is involved in the management of people within the organization. It includes all the people in the organization form the workers to those at the top level of management (Byars & Rue 1991).
Another characteristic of Human Resource Management is being people-oriented, which is its core feature. It is essential, as it helps bring people together so that their goals can be met and achieved (Dessler 2000). It also needs to be action-oriented whereby appropriate actions must be taken so that the goals of individuals and the organization can be achieved instead of only keeping records.
Human Resource Management is future-oriented whereby providing employees who are competent helps the firm meet its long-term and future goals. It can also be said to be development-oriented, since its intention is to develop the potential in the employees. It offers training to its employees so that they can improve and sharpen their skills. In an effort to develop the employees, Human Resource Management rotates the employees in various jobs so that they can gain exposure and experience in various jobs. All these attempts are aimed at ensuring that the talents of employees are utilized effectively.
Human Resource Management uses an integrating mechanism that is aimed at building and maintaining good relationships between people at working at various levels within the organization. This is integrating all human assets in a good way (Dessler 2000).
It is involved in all the comprehensive functions that are concerned with the decisions of the firm and have impacts on the workforce. Workforce in the organization involves all the people in the organization from the one at the bottom to those at the top of management. It is a mechanism that is aimed at developing the potential of employees so that they can derive satisfaction out of their work and, at the same time, put the efforts that are required to the firms’ activities (Byars & Rue 1991).
Human Resource Management Department assists in advising operational managers so that they can do their work effectively. The department is also multi-disciplinary in that it utilizes knowledge that is learnt from various aspects such as economics and sociology. Human Resource Management undersands and appreciates contributions from the other disciplines (Ivancevich 1998). Finally, the nature of Human Resource Management can be said to be continuous, as it is practiced constantly. It requires Human Resource Managers to be aware and alert of the human relations in their daily operations.
Scope of Human Resource Management
It is a wide scope that includes new trends and research in the field that have advanced the scope of Human Resource Management. It involves personal aspect that is concerned with recruitment, selection, manpower planning, placement, transfer, promotion training, and development (Torrington 1998). It also involves the welfare aspect where it deals with amenities and working conditions at the workplace. It seeks to ensure that there are canteens, assistance in transport, and medical needs. It also seeks to promote healthy working environments and recreational facilities within the workplace (Mondy & Gowan 2005).
It is also involved in aspects that are related to industrial relations in management. The Human Resource Management Department consults on collective bargaining grievances and also the disciplinary procedures to be used to settle disputes that may arise (Ivancevich 1998).
Objectives of Human Resource Management
The Human Resource Management has objectives that can be classified as societal, functional, organizational, and personal. Human Resource Management societal objectives may include those of contributing socially and ethically to the challenges and needs that may emerge in the society. An example is a situation when the organization fails to use its resources in ways that may benefit the society and are considered to be ethical, which results in restrictions by the society (Decenzo & Robbins 1996).
The main goal of the Human Resource Management is to achieve the organization’s objectives. The goals can be achieved by ensuring that there is effectiveness in the organization of the working process. The functional goals of Human Resource Management are concerned with the contribution the various departments within the organization. It is concerned with issues addressing effectiveness and needs for the attainment of the organizational objectives. Once the Human Resource Management department is unable to fulfill the demands of the organization, it results in the wastage of skills and resources (Dessler 2000).
It is the objective of the Human Resource Management to deal with personal objectives of all the individuals, so that the objectives of the organization can be attained. When personal and organizational objectives are met, the organization enjoys competitive advantage and maximum production (Mathis & Jackson 2003). Personal objectives are also important in retaining, maintaining, and motivating employees. When this is not done, employees become dissatisfied, and low and poor performance at the organization leads to low production accordingly.
The objectives of Human Resource Management can be summarized as those of helping the organization attain its goals and enhancing effective and maximum utilization of human resource in the workplace. In all these efforts, respect for all persons in the organization is taken into consideration (Byars & Rue 1991). Through the Human Resource Management department, organization needs to be socially and ethically responsive to the needs of the society. When employees are equipped with the skills of development, a spirit of teamwork is inculcated, and also it promotes inter-team collaboration (Torrington 1998).
Functions of Human Resource Management
The Human Resource Management entails functions including compensation, hiring, development maintenance, integration, and procurement. Procurement implies hiring the correct number of workers and of the right kind. Procurement involves manpower planning, recruitment, job planning, and induction (Decenzo & Robbins 1996).
Development, as a function of the Human Resource Management, entails enhancement of skills, abilities, and the attitudes of the employees so that organizational objectives can be attained. Development entails performance appraisal, development, career planning, career counseling, and training in the field of operations (University Of Michigan, & Society For Human Resource Management 1972).
Compensation happens when employees receive equitable and fair remunerations. Integration, as a function of the Human Resource Management, means that there is cooperation and co-ordination between the employer, employee, and the organization. Sometimes it may even involve the government. This is aimed at ensuring that there is harmony and good relationship between all the teams. Activities which are involved in integration include participation in management, discipplinary procedures, collective bargaining, motivation, and job satisfaction (Mathis & Jackson 2003).
The Human Resource Management is also responsible for maintaining the welfare of the employees. It involves advocating for safety of the employees at the workplace, job security, social security, health covers, and rest rooms as well as canteens (Mondy & Gowan 2005).
Importance of Human Resource Management
The importance of Human Resource Management can be discussed in terms of four levels including the corporate level, professional level, national level, and social level. At the corporate level, effective Human Resource Management contributes towards the attainment of goal in an effective and efficient manner. The Human Resource Management is useful to an organization as it hires individuals who have the required skills and retains them via efficient human resource recruitment, selection, and placement (Torrington 1998).
At the corporate level, the development of the employees is enhanced by ensuring that they are equipped with the necessary skills. The attitude of all the workers needs to be positive, and this can be enhanced through training, development, and performance appraisal. It is also responsible for ensuring that resources are utilized effectively. The Human Resource Management corporate importance is in ensuring that the organization has a team that is competent and also dedicated. The team should also be dedicated in ensuring that the organization attains its goals (Dessler 2000).
The Human Resource Management significance at the professional level aims at ensuring that employees within the organization are provided with a healthy working environment. This promotes the growth of professionalism by providing employees with opportunities for their personal development. Through personal development of the employees, healthy relationships between all the teams in the organization are fostered. It is the Human Resource Management that contributes to the improvement of the quality of the work life.
Human Resource Management has a role to play at the social level. Human Resource Management Department is charged with the mandate of employing workers in the organization. With this responsibility, it provides employment opportunities to people in the society, which, in turn, translates to giving people psychological and social satisfaction. Creation of employment opportunities improves the standards of living of people in the society (Mondy& Gowan 2005).
Human Resource Management is significant at the national level, since it plays an important role in the nation’s development. When there is an effective and efficient Human Resource Management, resources can be efficiently and effectively utilized. When there are skilled personnel in a country, development is promoted as compared to a country where there the skills of people are underdeveloped. It is, thus, clear that when there is an effective Human Resource Management, economic growth can be witnessed, which, in turn, results in improved standards of living and satisfying employment levels (University Of Michigan, & Society For Human Resource Management 1972).
Trends in Human Resource Management
There are changes that continue to occur in Human Resource Management concerning issues which are related to the flow of human resource, participation of employees, and rewarding systems. The issues of internalization of the integration of the market and increased competition are being observed (Mathis & Jackson 2003). Rapidly changing technology is another trend which brings new concepts in Human Resource Management.
In order to develop and improve the performance of an organization to levels that are considered to be innovative and flexible, the Human Resource Management should be linked with the objectives and strategic goals. Capabilities of the employees need to be assessed by placing them in new roles and being given other new responsibilities (Dessler 2000). When an organization retains workers for a long period of time, they reduce money that could have been spent searching for new employees.
In addition, when the organization puts more efforts in addressing the needs of the employees at the workplace, a favorable environment for productivity is created. Through Human Resource Management, relations between the management can be boosted, hence, increasing the organization’s productivity. Moreover, Human Resource Management can contribute to an increase in the overall productivity of an organization by ensuring that organizational goals and objectives are realistic and attainable. In addition, organizational goals must conform to the skills and capabilities of employees for them to deliver their best performance.