What is UNIX
UNIX is Multi-task operational system which was originally developed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. It was developed by AT & T Bell Laboratory in 1969 to be used in mini-computers. Currently, there are various forms and implementations of the system. This is a powerful operating system that is less machine-dependent than any other operating system. It is written in a computing system C (Stallings, 2005).
In the world of IT, the concept of certification is actual. It indicates that the product is certified. It performs specific tasks in specific conditions. Operating systems are certified for a particular purpose, and the program is certified to perform certain calculations. This concept means that a buyer can be sure that the product which he/she buys will perform the task at 100%. Exactly the same concept is applicable to specialists. Certification of specialists is the check for the required knowledge, skills, and experience to perform the tasks that are associated with the technology or product for which it is certified. If it is successful, the certification authority grants a certificate (paper or electronic) to an expert. After such a certification process, a candidate is considered to be an expert in the technology.
Stages and Aspects of Certification Process
The first thing to do is to define goals and objectives clearly. In most cases, of course, the main cause is to receive a job, have a prestigious job interview, or decorate a resume. It is necessary to be ready for the exam.
The second stage is to identify what technological development specialists want to check. All professionals always check their knowledge and skills using different programs and certificates. In this case, it is necessary to understand which
level of programs is needed, how much time is spent, and how much money needs to be spend. After this stage, it is possible to find certification body and start the process of studying.
Thirdly, when the certification organ is chosen, it is necessary to think about the practice. The exam is not possible without practice. Different software can give the same prestige but can be of different level of difficulties. Linux and Solaris are easy systems to learn, but AIX and UP-UX are more complicated.
The fourth aspect is documentation. In order to be certified professionally, it is necessary to use the official documentation of the system that is given by the manufacturer. For example, for IBM, there are official guidelines which are available on the Acadia Program. HP and Solaris documentation are situated on many of their sites. Since Linux is more difficult, it is necessary to take the list of questions which are to be submitted to the exam and look for books that contain all of these topics.
The fifth stage is to register for the exam. Exams are usually scheduled. It is necessary to register on the site to order the exam, to pay for it by credit card, and wait for the exam. It is important to remember to take a foreign passport and all payment papers to a testing center.
The sixth stage is an exam itself. In the process of the test, plenty of time is usually given, and it is recommended to skip questions that need long thinking quickly, choose what is certain, and then return to difficult issues.
Kinds of Academies and their Duties
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Academy of Local, Regional Academy, and Academy Training Centers Cisco (CATC) are te three types of Academies. Local Academies provide students with knowledge in the program. Local Academies are usually organized on the basis of high school and college, but the role of these academies is to provide other
organizations with educational programs. The regional academies are in most cases colleges, but sometimes they can be schools, training centers, and other organizations offering educational programs. Teachers of Regional Academy provide education and training for teachers of the local Academy, introducing them to the program as well as teaching methods of Cisco Networking Academy. Cisco Academy Training Centers (CATC) are selected from Cisco Regional Academy. They teach trainers of other Regional Academies. Teacher training is implemented directly in the CATC. CATC and Regional Academies may be local academies as well if they instruct students.
Requirements for Candidates Who Want to Be Certified
The program presupposes different levels. The beginning level assumes that students do not have knowledge of computers and networks. It is expected that students will be able to read, write, and solve math problems at the level of eighth grade. Local Academy instructors use basic computer literacy and general knowledge of computer operating systems, but this is not an absolute necessity. The advanced level assumes that candidates are able to work with some operational systems and want to upgrade their knowledge.
Requirements for Teachers
Teachers of the regional academies and training centers not only need basic computer skills and general knowledge in the field of operating systems but must be advanced in some knowledge on how to work in UNIX and DOS.
The Ultimate Goal of Certification
The course is an introduction to the operating system UNIX. As part of the certification course, candidates learn how to perform basic functions in UNIX which allow them to continue their education at more advanced system of administration
programs in UNIX.
Additionally, after this certification, candidates can take the exam for a certificate in Linux (Ritchie & Thompson, 1978).
How to Register for the Certification Process
The course is available in different countries in English and other languages. In order to register it is necessary to find the local center, fill in papers, and start the process.
The Restrictions on Accessibility to the Course
The program materials are protected by copyright law. Access to the materials should have only students studying in Networking Academy, as well as the facility staff which is trained on the program.
What Equipment is Used
Although the program provides simulation environment UNIX, in all classes operating systems Solaris 8 and/or Linux are installed. There are no compatibility issues, and hardware costs can be avoided completely. In case of problems with the hardware, the Academy may have to purchase a new PC or workstation Sun. Sun provides discounts on hardware and software that is involved in the Networking Academy Cisco.
How Teachers are Trained
Teachers of Local Academies are qualified in regional academies, teachers of the regional academies are qualified in Central Academy Training Cisco (CATC), and CATC instructors are instructed by professionals working for Cisco.
How to Take an Exam of UNIX
In order to take an exam on a certificate, students must listen to at least one course on UNIX. Additionally, the course “Fundamentals of UNIX” together with the
course “IT Essentials II: Network Operating Systems” will prepare students to take an exam for Linux.
How to Evaluate the Progress of Students in the Learning of UNIX?
Cisco has developed an effective system of learning assessment that allows students, teachers, administrators, and Cisco employees to obtain detailed information about the academic achievements of students. Based on the assessment of these data, Cisco continually improves the organization and content of the program.
What is Happening after the Exam
After one passes the exam, testing center provides a document that shows the results of the test. This is the only proof that the test was put until receiving the results in a database. Examinations are recorded in the database in a few days, and then electronic certificates are issued.
UNIX Certification Variation
By its very nature, any UNIX certification depends on the manufacturer of the operating system. No matter for what kind of UNIX one is now or may be working in the future, it is safe to say that UNIX certification is designed to meet any consumer requirements. It is necessary to discuss certification that is offered by major manufacturers: HP, Sun, SCO, and IBM.
Sun Solaris UNIX
Without any doubt, Sun has the most well-developed and structured certification path to UNIX. It is based on Sun own operating system which is called Solaris. Sun continues to offer certification programs for Solaris versions 7 and 8, but preparing for UNIX, it is necessary to focus on the certification path for the Solaris 9 Operating System. To start, it is necessary to pass two exams to obtain the status of Sun Certified System Administration for the Solaris 9 Operating System (SCSA). Sun
recommends having at least six months experience as a system administrator before proceeding to obtain this certification status. Under the Sun system, administrators include those IT professionals who perform basic system of administration procedures in the operating environment of Solaris. It is possible to use the status of the SCSA as a prerequisite for becoming a Sun Certified Network Administrator for the Solaris Operating System. A great way to acquire UNIX skills specializing in security is to obtain the status of Sun Certified Security Administrator for the Solaris Operating System. It is designed for candidates who have between six and 12 months of experience administering security.
HP has recently changed the name of their certified status from UNIX HP Certified IT Professional into HP-UX System Administration. To obtain this status, it is enough to pass an exam.
For those who are certified by IBM AIX certification program consisting of a single exam - IBM Certified AIX User Version 4 - is a good starting point. IBM suggests that one has six months of practical experience with the operating system.
SCO / Caldera
The company SCO, which is not so long ago has fused with the company Caldera, has already created several certification programs that cause, however, the debate about “intellectual property rights”, The issue is associated with some code that was found in the operating system Linux. SCO offers three levels of certification:
- SCO Certified System Administrator (CSA)
- SCO Advanced Certified Engineer (ACE)
- Master ACE
These certification programs are based on their operating system UnixWare 7 or Open Unix 8.0. The exams cost $125 and $180 U.S. to take. Information on certification programs can be found on any site of certification bodies.