The topic of this discussion is media violence presented in the articles of Cutler (2004) and Donnerstein (2005). The problem identified in both articles is the spread of violence in children and the issue under discussion is the role of media in increasing the seriousness of problem. According to Donnerstein (2005), there is evidence that the rise of aggressive behavior and attitudes in young population is due to the high exposure of media violence. On the other hand, Cutler (2004) argues that thousands of previous researches did not find any clear answer for responsibility of media as an only factor in raising violent behavior in society; there are other significant factors present which contribute the severity of violence problem.
Expression of Problems/issues
The problem of media violence has been expressed effectively in these articles with clear thesis statements and rational viewpoints on the issue. Donnerstein (2005) states that even if the media is not the most important factor but its routine presentations of violent behavior in glamorous manner made the violence acceptable in society. Where as, Cutler elaborated her viewpoint on the argument that media violence cannot be separated from other factors which contribute in spreading violence and real life violence experiences are far more effective as compared to the violence presented on media. Both articles present their viewpoints effective in clear and concise manner.
Credibility of Information Sources
There are several information sources presented by both article, and their credibility is determined by accessing multiple links given in references and end notes in the articles. The researches like that of American psychological Association council’s judgments, research of Stanford university, and several other references are authentic and credible in defining and assessing the problem of aggressive behaviors and role of violence shown on media. The points elaborated in the articles are also supported by the books mentioned in the reference section, which discuss the issue in great detail.
Steps in refining Problem
The problem is refined in both articles by using the same steps; the evaluation of the arguments present in both articles is done as following:
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- Firstly, the literature review and reference of old researches to explore the main issue and its implications in various situations. The discussion of the affects other factors like child abuse, drugs etc. on children behavior with the support of various quotations of social scientists and authors supported the arguments of both writers.
- Secondly, the solutions and strategies presented in previous researches have surely helped in determining the solution of violence problem, and how to rectify it with the help of media, parents, and teachers.
Strategies that Foster Criticism
The articles are analyzed with the help of different strategies like:
- Evaluation of the clarity of defining the main issues and the style of presentation adopted in both articles.
- The research design and approach of both researchers in evaluating their topics, both of them have used an exploratory research approach with the help of literature review to discuss the issue.
- The amount of fact and figures, real incidents, and references present in both articles facilitate the evaluation of credibility of both articles.
Effective approaches in refining solution
Both articles have put forward many approaches in refining the solution of violence in society, some important ones areas follows:
- The positive role of parents in monitoring the type and amount of media exposure to their children and practice of control mechanism in restriction of media impact.
- The role of teachers in checking the aggressive behavior of students and efforts made to counsel the deviated and isolated children
- The precautionary measures taken by the media to control and restrict the program contents as per requirements of various age group audiences.
Errors affecting truth and validity
There are many sources of errors in real life researches which can affect the results of investigations, three major errors that can affect the findings of these researches can be:
- The subjective nature of researches presented in the article s has difficulty in measurement of responses, and as a result there is no specific conclusion can be obtained.
- The limitations of conducted researches in particuular age groups cannot present the voice of all factors and people that can affect the scenario of violence like that of violent attitudes of parents and children etc.
- The briefness of both articles cannot cover all aspects of this important issue; therefore no absolute conclusion can be drawn on the usefulness and accuracy of these articles.
The process of evaluation has been started with the thorough reading of both articles, understanding the difference in point of views, evaluating the validity and scope of the material presented, and validating the conclusions strengths and their viability to the generalization of current issue. In a limited scenario of theoretical evidences, the articles have proved their worth but their conciseness, subjective approach, and limited application cannot make them universally acceptable. Further detailed researches on the topic are needed to draw a specific conclusion.
Presentation of Personal Ideas
If I am going to present my ideas on the same topic of media violence, then first of all, I will broaden my scope and try to generalize the issue little bit more. This can be done by utilizing detailed secondary researches and conducting a primary research on the viability of the stated thesis statement. The validity, reliability, and transferability need to be maintained in order to achieve triangulation of research approach. The articles under consideration did not fulfill the condition of triangulation as they lack transferability. The persuasion of others can be achieved by effective research approach, clear concepts, and easy to understand techniques to explore the issues.
Effective oral and written communication
The approaches used in this evaluation can also implement to achieve better written and oral communication. In my view, the most effective techniques will be:
- Accuracy and credibility of the message used in communication to gain the confidence of listener/reader.
- Clarity and conciseness of the addressed facts and figures to clarify the issues under consideration.
- Style of presentation should be targeted to the nature and academic level of target audience in order to communicate the message effectively and to gain a prompt feedback.