The human heart is about the same size as the human’s wrist or palm, and grows in relation to the body size. A usual heart rate for an adult averagely ranges from sixty to hundred beats per minute. The heart constitutes four chambers; left ventricle, right ventricle, left atria, and right atria. The four types of valves include; tricuspid valve, mitral valve, pulmonary valve, and aortic valve. The primary importance of the proper functioning of heart valves is to ensure continuous pumping of blood in the circulatory system. The veins responsible for pumping blood to the heart are inferior and superior vena cava. They are the veins that pump blood to the right atrium after a complete blood circulation circle. The left side of the heart accepts and sends oxygenated blood to the entire the body while the right side receives and sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Though both arteries and veins enable blood to flow in the human body, they both contain elastic fibres and muscles in their walls, and are both three layered. Arteries majorly carry blood (oxygenated) away from the heart, while veins carry blood (deoxygenated) towards the heart.
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Heart attack is considered to have occurred if the flow of oxygenated blood to part of the heart muscle is blocked. The major unchangeable risk factors include; medical history, gender (men are more prone than women), age, and heredity factors. The risk factors that can be controlled include; smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. The major warning signs of heart attack include; chest discomfort or pain, shortness of breath, nausea, and discomfort in upper body. The use of aspirin helps interfere the blood’s clotting action by reducing the clumping action of platelets. Aspirin is not beneficial to everybody. Although aspirin is considered a remedy to heart attack, the following risks are likely to occur; bleeding stomach ulcers, allergy, and clotting or bleeding disorder.
The folloing are the strategies required for one to prevent heart diseases; no smoking, exercising for at least thirty minutes daily, eating a healthy heart diet, maintaining a normal body weight, and having regular healthy screenings. A heart healthy diet includes the following eight steps; controlling the portion size, eating more fruits and vegetables, selecting the use of whole grains, limiting unhealthy use of cholesterol and fats, using low fat protein sources, reducing the amount of sodium intake in food, create daily menus by planning a head, and allowing yourself in some occasions an occasional treat.
Diabetes, which is a life threatening disease, is a disorder of metabolism. It is an untreatable disease, but can be controlled. 23.6 million People (7.8% of the population) are estimated to have diabetes in the U.S. The symptoms include; frequent urination, fatigue, weight loss, slow healing of wounds, blurred vision, and constant hunger. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ: type 1 leads to little or no insulin production by the pancreas, while type 2 is where the pancreas produces enough or more insulin that the body cannot use. This makes their management different, for instance in type 1, an individual is required to take insulin daily while in type 2 an individual is required to reduce the intake of insulin. Gestational diabetes occurs in women during later stages of their pregnancy. It is impermanent and usually disappears after birth. Prediabetes, impaired glucose, is a condition at which individuals are considered to have glucose levels that are higher than normal but not enough to be classified as having diabetes. An individual diagnosed with prediabetes can delay or prevent diabetes by decreasing 5-7 percent of the body weight through physical activity or diet.
Cancer is the irregular growth of cells. Cancer cells differ from normal cells; normal cells grow, divide, and die in an organized manner while cancer cells grow abnormally. A third of women and half of men, during their lifetime, are considered to develop cancer. Cancer starts by pushing the nearby organs, nerves, and blood vessels. This pressure created leads to the signs and symptoms of cancer. Metastasis is the spreading of cancerous cells, and is frequently used to establish the cause of cancer. The general signs of cancer include; fever, fatigue, pain, unusual bleeding or discharge, lumps or thickening in some body parts like breasts, difficulty in swallowing, and skin changes. Exposures and substances that can lead to cancer are known as carcinogens. Examples include; pollution, medical treatments such as radiations and chemotherapy, and natural exposures such as ultraviolet light. In most instances, carcinogens do not cause cancer, for example some carcinogens may cause cancer after a long exposure period. The major risk factors include; family history, age, and medical history. Other risk factors that can be forbidden include; smoking diet, exercise, weight, and exposure of estrogen. The primary tests include; hands on screening and getting pictures (mammograms). Hands on screening involve the physical examination of the breasts on the presence of irregularities while mammograms are the screening tests. The risks associated to breast cancer include; false positive test, exposure of breast to radiation, pain or discomfort during the process, and false negative tests can occur. The six treatments for cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by surgery. The possible signs of breast include; presence thickening or lumps, change in shape, contour, or size of the breast, redness of the skin, marble harden like pattern under the skin, blood stained, and change of the appearance of the nipple. Most of these signs are a sign of breast cancer but clinical tests should be done for confirmatory purposes. Such factors as location and type of the cancer, stage of the disease, cancer’s grade, patient’s age, and genetic or biological properties of the cancer affects the prognosis and treatment options of cancer.
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